Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Cut-Off Points for Metabolic Syndrome in Urban Residents in Ningxia

DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2015.512020   PDF   HTML   XML   3,124 Downloads   3,639 Views   Citations


A growing number of studies show that different countries and populations require different cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) leading to obesity. There are no data on optimal cut-off points to metabolic syndrome (MS) among urban residents in Ningxia. Our aim is to determine the appropriate cut-off points for BMI and WC associated with elevated prevalent MS risk among urban residents in Ningxia. A total of 2500 urban residents in Ningxia were examined from May 2008 to March 2009 in a community-based cross-sectional study. Height, body weight, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured to calculate BMI. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were examined using a blood glucose meter and the chromatographic enzyme method. BMI and WC were measured to assess overweight or obesity. Of these, 301 subjects were chosen according to metabolic syndrome diagnosis standards to form the case group. The control group comprised 301 healthy people without diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipemia, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumors or chronic infections. Logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine optimal cut-off points for BMI and WC in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. The optimal cut-off points for male and female respectively were 24.78 kg/m2 (sensitivity = 0.879, specificity = 0.648) and 24.72 kg/m2 (sensitivity = 0.804, specificity = 0.767) for BMI, 85.95 cm (sensitivity = 0.701, specificity = 0.641) and 78.25 cm (sensitivity = 0.804, specificity = 0.528) for WC. Urban residents in Ningxia were at high risk of MS, and the cut-off points for BMI and WC were lower than the data currently recommended in Asian population.


Share and Cite:

Yang, J. , Qiu, H. , Li, H. , Zhang, Y. , Tao, X. and Fan, Y. (2015) Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Cut-Off Points for Metabolic Syndrome in Urban Residents in Ningxia. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 5, 163-170. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2015.512020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Alberti, K.G.M., Zimmet, P. and Shaw, J., IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group (2005) The Metabolic Syndrome—A New Worldwide Definition. The Lancet, 366, 1059-1062.
[2] Chien, K.L., Hsu, H.C., Sung, F.C., Su, T.C., Chen, M.F. and Lee, Y.T. (2007) Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: An 11-Year Prospective Cohort in Taiwan Community. Atherosclerosis, 194, 214-221.
[3] Bahrami, H., Sadatsafavi, M., Pourshams, A., Kamangar, F., Nouraei, M., Semnani, S. and Malekzadeh, R. (2006) Obesity and Hypertension in an Iranian Cohort Study; Iranian Women Experience Higher Rates of Obesity and Hypertension than American Women. BMC Public Health, 6, 158.
[4] Wiesenthal, S.R., Sandhu, H., McCall, R.H., Tchipashvili, V., Yoshii, H., Polonsky, K. and Giacca, A. (1999) Free Fatty Acids Impair Hepatic Insulin Extraction in Vivo. Diabetes, 48, 766-774.
[5] World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic (No. 894). World Health Organization.
[6] Das, U.N. (2008) Essential Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Could Function as Endogenous HMG-CoA Reductase and ACE Enzyme Inhibitors, Anti-Arrhythmic, Anti-Hypertensive, Anti-Atherosclerotic, Anti-Inflammatory, Cytoprotective, and Cardioprotective Molecules. Lipids in Health and Disease, 7, 18.
[7] Zhou, B.F., Wu, Y.F., Li, Y. and Zhang, L.F. (2005) The Cut-Off Point of Waist Circumference for Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Adults. Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 33, 81-85.
[8] Saely, C.H., Koch, L., Schmid, F., Marte, T., Aczel, S., Langer, P. and Drexel, H. (2006) Adult Treatment Panel III 2001 but Not International Diabetes Federation 2005 Criteria of the Metabolic Syndrome Predict Clinical Cardiovascular Events in Subjects Who Underwent Coronary Angiography. Diabetes Care, 29, 901-907.
[9] Kanazawa, M., Yoshiike, N., Osaka, T., Numba, Y., Zimmet, P. and Inoue, S. (2005) Criteria and Classification of Obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 94, 1-12.
[10] Taylor, R.W., Brooking, L., Williams, S.M., Manning, P.J., Sutherland, W.H., Coppell, K.J. and Mann, J.I. (2010) Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs to Define Obesity in Indigenous New Zealanders. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92, 390-397.
[11] Wildman, R.P., Gu, D., Reynolds, K., Duan, X. and He, J. (2004) Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs for Categorization of Overweight and Central Adiposity among Chinese Adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1129-1136.
[12] He, M., Tan, K.C., Li, E.T. and Kung, A.W. (2001) Body Fat Determination by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Its Relation to Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Hong Kong Chinese. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 25, 748-752.
[13] Chang, C.J., Wu, C.H., Chang, C.S., Yao, W.J., Yang, Y.C., Wu, J.S. and Lu, F.H. (2003) Low Body Mass Index but High Percent Body Fat in Taiwanese Subjects: Implications of Obesity Cutoffs. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 253-259.
[14] Zhou, B. (2002) Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference to Risk Factors of Related Diseases in Chinese Adult Population. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology, 23, 5-10.
[15] Al-Lawati, J.A. and Jousilahti, P. (2008) Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio Cut-Off Points for Categorisation of Obesity among Omani Arabs. Public Health Nutrition, 11, 102-108.
[16] Ganguly, S.S., Al Shafaee, M.A., Al Lawati, J.A., Dutta, P.K. and Duttagupta, K.K. (2009) Epidemiological Transition of Some Diseases in Oman: A Situational Analysis. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 15, 209-218.
[17] Gurrici, S., Hartriyanti, Y., Hautvast, J.G.A.J. and Deurenberg, P. (1998) Relationship between Body Fat and Body Mass Index: Differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 779-783.
[18] Alberti, K.G.M.M., Zimmet, P. and Shaw, J. (2006) Metabolic Syndrome—A New World-Wide Definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetic Medicine, 23, 469-480.
[19] Bouguerra, R., Alberti, H., Smida, H., Salem, L.B., Rayana, C.B., El Atti, J., Achour, A., Gaigi, S., Slama, C.B., Zouari, B. and Alberti, K.G. (2007) Waist Circumference Cut-Off Points for Identification of Abdominal Obesity among the Tunisian Adult Population. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 9, 859-868.
[20] Teng, X.Y., Liu, W., Jia, Y. and Fang, X.M. (2006) Optimum Variables and Corresponding Cut-Off Points for Identifying Obesity-Associated Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Medical Science), 26, 980-983.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.