Energy-Efficient Content-Based Routing in Internet of Things


The convergence of the Internet, sensor networks, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems has ushered to the concept of Internet of Things (IoT) which is capable of connecting daily things, making them smart through sensing, reasoning, and cooperating with other things. Further, RFID technology enables tracking of an object and assigning it a unique ID. IoT has the potential for a wide range of applications relating to healthcare, environment, transportation, cities… Moreover, the middleware is a basic component in the IoT architecture. It handles heterogeneity issues among IoT devices and provides a common framework for communication. More recently, the interest has focusing on developing publish/subscribe middleware systems for the IoT to allow asynchronous communication between the IoT devices. The scope of our paper is to study routing protocols for publish/subscribe schemes that include content and context-based routing. We propose an Energy-Efficient Content-Based Routing (EECBR) protocol for the IoT that minimizes the energy consumption. The proposed algorithm makes use of a virtual topology that is constructed in a centralized manner and then routes the events from the publishers to the intended interested subscribers in a distributed manner. EECBR has been simulated using Omnet++. The simulation results show that EECBR has a significant performance in term of the energy variance compared to the other schemes.

Share and Cite:

Chelloug, S. (2015) Energy-Efficient Content-Based Routing in Internet of Things. Journal of Computer and Communications, 3, 9-20. doi: 10.4236/jcc.2015.312002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Atzori, L., Iera, A. and Morabito, G. (2010) The Internet of Things?: A Survey. Computer Networks, 54, 2787-2805.
[2] Souza, A.M.C. and Amazonas, J.R.A. (2015) A New Internet of Things Architecture with Cross-Layer Communication. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Emerging Networks and Systems Intelligence Emerging 2015, Nice, 19-24 July 2015, 1-6
[3] Michael, M.P. (2007) Architectural Solutions for Mobile RFID Services on Internet of Things.
[4] Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y. and Cayirci, E. (2002) Wireless Sensor Networks?: A Survey. Computer Networks, 38, 393-422.
[5] Jia, X., Feng, Q., Fan, T., and Lei, Q. (2012) RFID Technology and Its Applications in Internet of Things (IoT). 2012 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), Yichang, 21-23 April 2012, 1282-1285.
[6] Bandyopadhyay, S., Sengupta, M., Maiti S., and Dutta, S. (2011) Role of Middleware for Internet of Things: A Study. International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey, 2, 94-105.
[7] Deering, S. and Hinden, R. (1998) Internet Protocol Version 6 Specification, RFC 2460.
[8] Engineers, E. (2003) IEEE Standards. “Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)”, IEEE-SA Standards Board.
[9] Baldoni, R. and Virgillito, A. (2005) Distributed Event Routing in Publish/Subscribe Communication Systems: A Survey. Technical Report TR-1/06. Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza”
[10] Kamal, J.N.A.A.E. (2008) Efficient Virtual-Backbone Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Computer Networks, 52, 327-350.
[11] Vermesan, O. and Friess, P. (2014) Internet of Things—From Research and Innovation to Market Deployment. River Publishers, Aalborg.
[12] Kopetz, H. (1997) Real-Time Systems: Design Principles for Distributed Embedded Applications. Real-Time Systems Series, Springer, New York.
[13] Antonopoulos, N. and Gillam, L. (2012) Cloud Computing: Principles, Systems and Applications. Springer, London.
[14] Buyya, R., Yeo, C.S., Venugopal, S., Broberg, J. and Brandic, I. (2009) Cloud Computing and Emerging IT Platforms: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering Computing as the 5th Utility. Future Generation Computer Systems, 25, 599-616.
[15] Suciu, G., Vulpe, A., Todoran, G., Cropotova, J. and Suciu, V. (2011) Cloud Computing and Internet of Things for Smart City. 1409-1416.
[16] Botta, A., De Donato, W., Persico, V. and Pescap, A. (2014) On the Integration of Cloud Computing and Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), Barcelona, 27-29 August 2014, 23-30.
[17] Buchanan, B. (1999) Handbook of Data Communication and Networks. Springer, New York.
[18] Mbarushimana, C., Shahrabi, A. and Glasgow, G. (2007) Comparative Study of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols Performance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 2, 679-684.
[19] Abolhasan, M., Wysocki, T. and Dutkiewicz, E. (2004) A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile. Ad Hoc Networks, 2, 1-22.
[20] Al-Karaki, J. and Kamal, A. (2004) Routing Techniques a Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey. IEEE Wireless Communications, 11, 6-28.
[21] Shelby, Z. and Bormann, C. (2009) 6LoWPAN?: The Wireless Embedded Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
[22] Ee, G.K., Ng, C.K., Noordin, N.K. and Ali, B.M. (2010) A Review of 6LoWPAN Routing Protocols. Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Advanced Network, 30, 71-81.
[23] Georgiadis, L. (2002) Carrier-Sence Multiprle Access (CSMA) Protocols, 1-18.
[24] Postel, J. (1980) User Datagram Protocol, RFC 768.
[25] Perkins, C.E., Park, M. and Royer, E.M. (1999) Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing. Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, New Orleans, 25-26 February 1999, 90-100.
[26] Yang, T., Yang, Q. and Cheng, L. (2015) Experimental Study: A LQI-Based Ranging Technique in ZigBee Sensor Networks. International Journal of Sensor Networks, 19, 130-138.
[27] Tran, T. and Thuy, T. (2011) Routing Protocols in Internet of Things. Report, ESG Seminar.
[28] Klein, B.A. (2011) RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks. 59-66.
[29] Das, S.M., Pucha, H., Papagiannaki, K. and Hu, Y.C. (2007) Studying Wireless Routing Link Metric Dynamics. Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, San Diego, 23-26 October 2007, 327-332.
[30] Park, S., Cho, S. and Lee, J. (2014) Energy-Efficient Probabilistic Routing Algorithm for Internet of Things. Journal of. Applied Mathematics, 2014, Article ID: 213106.
[31] Chen, Z., Wang, H., Liu, Y., Bu, F. and Wei, Z. (2012) A Context-Aware Routing Protocol on Internet of Things Based on Sea Computing Model. Journal of Computers, 7, 96-105.
[32] Wilmer, E.L. (2009) Markov Chains and Mixing Times. AMS Publisher, Providence.
[33] Di Marco, P., Athanasiou, G., Mekikis, P. and Fischione, C. (2015) MAC-Aware Routing Metrics for the Internet of Things. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1-31.
[34] Xin, H. (2015) Routing Protocols Analysis for Internet of Things. 2-5.
[35] Mohapatra, S. and Kanungo, P. (2012) Procedia Engineering Performance Analysis of AODV, DSR, OLSR and DSDV Routing Protocols Using NS2 Simulator. Procedia Engineering, 30, 69-76.
[36] Eugster, P.T.H., Felber, P.A. and Kermarrec, A. (2003) The Many Faces of Publish/Subscribe. ACM Computing Surveys, 35, 114-131.
[37] Shen, H. (2010) Content-Based Publish/Subscribe Systems, Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking. Springer Science and Business Media, LLC, New York, 1333-1366.
[38] Souto, E., Guimara, G., Vasconcelos, G., Vieira, M., Rosa, N., Ferraz, C. and Kelner, J. (2006) Mires: A Publish/ Subscribe Middleware for Sensor Networks. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 10, 37-44.
[39] Zhang, W. and Hansen, K.M. (2008) An {OWL/SWRL} Based Diagnosis Approach in a Pervasive Middleware. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, San Francisco, 1-3 July 2008, 893-898.
[40] Moreira Sa de Souza, L., Spiess, P., Koehler, M., Guinard, D., Karnouskos, S. and Savio, D. (2008) SOCRADES: A Web Service Based Shop Floor Integration Infrastructure. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4952, 50-67.
[41] Zarko, I.P., Pripuzic, K., Serrano, M. and Hauswirth, M. (2013) IoT Data Management Methods and Optimisation Algorithms for Mobile Publish/Subscribe Services in Cloud Environments. Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), Bologna, 23-26 June 2014, 1-5.
[42] Cao, F. and Singh, J.P. (2004) Efficient Event Routing in Content-based Publish-Subscribe Service Networks. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Hong Kong, 7-11 March 2004, 929-940.
[43] Lung, C., Zhou, C. and Yang, Y. (2007) Applying Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering to Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects of Sensor and Ad-Hoc Networks, Miami, 28-29 June 2007, 97-105.
[44] Pettie, S. and Ramachandran, V. (2002) An Optimal Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm. Journal of the ACM, 49, 16-34.
[45] Cugola, G. and Migliavacca, M. (2009) A Context and Content-Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks, Cork, 11-13 February 2009, 69-85.
[46] Baldoni, R., Beraldi, R., Quema, V., Querzoni, L. and Tucci-Piergiovanni, S. (2007) TERA: Topic-Based Event Routing for Peer-to-Peer Architectures. Proceedings of the 2007 Inaugural International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems, Toronto, 20-22 June 2007, 2-13.
[47] Calomme, S. and Leduc, G. (2008) An Overlay Maintenance Protocol for Overlay Routing on Top of Ad Hoc Networks. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4982, 48-59.
[48] Von, V. (2002) Large-Scale Content-Based Publish/Subscribe Systems. Dissertation, Darmstadt University, Darmstadt.
[49] Cardei, M., Wu, J., Lu, M. and Pervaiz, M.O. (2005) Maximum Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks with Adjustable Sensing Ranges. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Montreal, 22-24 August 2005, 1-8.
[50] Varga, A. OMNeT++.
[51] Wessel, K., Swigulski, M., Kopke, A. and Willkomm, D. (2009) MiXiM—The Physical Layer: An Architecture Overview. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on OMNeT++, Rome, March 2009, 1-8.
[52] Stefan, R. (2009) Theory and Practice of Geographic Routing. In: Liu, H., Chu, X.W. and Leung, Y.W., Eds., Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks: Architectures, Algorithms and Protocols, Bentham Science, Sharjah, 69-88.
[53] Champ, J. and Clement, S. (2008) An Energy-Efficient Geographic Routing with Location Errors in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks, Sydney, 7-9 May 2008, 105-110.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.