A Retrospective Study of the Variability in Etiological Agents of Urinary Tract Infections among Patients in Windhoek-Namibia


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections that affect patients of both genders of all age groups. The common bacteria causing UTIs have not yet been identified in Namibia. Due to empirical treatment in the country, antibiotic resistance might be on the rise. The objective of the study was to identify the organisms that frequently caused UTIs, and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the bacteria isolated. A retrospective analysis was performed on 20,438 urine results submitted to the Namibia Institute of pathology (NIP), the public health laboratory in the country from January 2012 to December 2012. The raw data from NIP was compiled using Microsoft Excel. It was then imported to the IBM SPSS 22 statistical program for further analysis. The results showed that there were 3865 (18.9%) UTI cases due to Escherichia coli making it the most prevalent organism isolated, followed by Proteus mirabilis 758 (3.7%), Enterococcus faecalis 706 (3.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae 640 (3.1%). Female patients were more affected by UTIs than males. The eleven most common causes of UTIs in this study were mostly isolated from females. The most common cause of urinary tract infections in males was Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Klebsiella pneumoniae. The drugs to which these common organisms were resistant to were amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole (SXT). Cefapime, ofloxacin and piptaze were the most effective antibiotics in this study. There were 6 cases of UTIs due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 10 cases due to Schistosoma haematobium. The most common UTI etiology in Windhoek was Escherichia coli. Most of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, with ESBL organisms having resistance to more than ten antibiotics.

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Veronika Jatileni, N. , Maposa, I. and Mavenyengwa, R. (2015) A Retrospective Study of the Variability in Etiological Agents of Urinary Tract Infections among Patients in Windhoek-Namibia. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 5, 184-192. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.54023.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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