Thermal and Electrical Properties of Sn-Zn-Bi Ternary Soldering Alloys

Abstract

Sn-Zn based solder is a possible replacement of Pb solder because of its better mechanical properties. The alloys need to be studied and explored to get a usable solder alloy having better properties. In this work, eutectic Sn-9Zn and three Tin-Zinc-Bismuth ternary alloys were prepared and investigated their thermal and electrical properties. Thermo-mechanical Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis were used to investigate thermal properties. Microstructural study is carried out with Scanning Electron Microscope. The alloys have single melting point. The co-efficient of thermal expansion and co-efficient of thermal contraction varies with alloy composition and temperature range. Electrical conductivity changes with Bi addition.

Share and Cite:

Wadud, M. , Gafur, M. , Qadir, M. and Rahman, M. (2015) Thermal and Electrical Properties of Sn-Zn-Bi Ternary Soldering Alloys. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 1008-1013. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.611100.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Mc Cormack, M., Jin, S. and Chen, H.S. (1994) New Lead-Free, Sn-Zn-In Solder Alloys. The Journal of Electronic Materials, 23, 687.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02653357
[2] Suganuma, K. (2001) Advances in Lead-Free Electronics Soldering. Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science, 555-564.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0286(00)00036-X
[3] Matsugi, K., Iwashta, Y., Choi, Y.-B., Sasaki, G. and Fuji, K. (2011) Long Time Stability of Pb-Free Sn-9Zn Elements for Ac-Low Voltage Fuse Performance. Materials Transaction, 52, 753.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.M2010389
[4] US Environmental Protection Agency (1991) Comprehensive Review of Lead in the Environment under TSC, 56FR22096-98.
[5] Alam, M.O., Chan, Y.C. and Tu, K.N. (2003) Lead-Free Solders: Materials Reliability for Electronics. Journal of Applied Physics, 94, 4108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1602563
[6] Chiu, M.Y., Wang, S.S. and Chuang, T.H. (2002) Intermatallic Compounds Formed during Interfacial Reactions between Liquid Sn-8Zn-3Bi Solders and Ni Substrates. Journal of Electronic Materials, 311, 494-499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11664-002-0105-8
[7] Yoon, J.-W., Kim, S.-W., Koo, J.-M., Kim, D.-G. and Jung, S.-B. (2004) Reliability Investigation and Interfacial Reaction of Ball-Grid-Array Packages Using the Lead-Free Sn-Cu Solder. Journal of Electronic Materials, 33, 1190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11664-004-0122-x
[8] Lee, H.-T., Lin, H.-S., Lee, C.-S. and Chen, P.-W. (2005) Reliability of Sn-Ag-Sb Lead-Free Solder Joints. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 407, 36-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.07.049
[9] Rizvi, M.J., Chan, Y.C., Bailey, C., Lu, H. and Islam, M.N. (2006) Effect of Adding 1 wt% Bi into the Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloy on the Intermetallic Formations with Cu-Substrate during Soldering and Isothermal Aging. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 407, 208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.06.050
[10] Debski, A., Gasior, W., Moser, Z. and Major, R. (2010) Enthalpy of Formation of Intermetallic Phases from the Au-Sn System. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 491, 173-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.003
[11] Chung, H.M., Chen, C.M., Lin, C.P. and Chen, C.J. (2009) Microstructural Evolution of the Au-20 wt.% Sn Solder on the Cu Substrate during Reflow. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 485, 219-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.06.018
[12] Zeng, G., McDonald, S. and Nogita, K. (2012) Stuart McDonald, Kazuhiro Nogita. Microelectronics Reliability, 52, 1306-1322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microrel.2012.02.018
[13] Matahir, M., Chin, L.T., Tan, K.S. and OOlofinjana, A. (2011) Mechanical Strength and Its Variability in Bi-Modified Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloy. Journal of Achievements in Material and Manufacturing Engineering, 46, 50-56.
[14] Cheng, Y.-T., Chan, Y.-T. and Chen, C.-C. (2010) Wettability and Interfacial Reactions between the Molten Sn-3.0 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.%Cu Solder(SAC)and Ni-Co Alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 507, 419-424.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.08.006
[15] Cheng, S.-C. and Lin, K.-L. (2005) Microstrucure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-8.55Zn-1Ag-XAl Solder Alloys. Materials Transactions, 46, 42-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.46.42
[16] Azizan, F.M., Purwanto, H. and Mustafa, M.Y. (2012) Effect of Adding Ag on Tensile and Microstructure Properties of Zinc Alloy. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 12, 78-84.
[17] Suganuma, K. and Kim, K.S. (2007) Sn-Zn Low Temperature Solder. Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Electronics, 18, 121-127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10854-006-9018-2
[18] Wang, H., Xue, S.B., Han, Z.J. and Wan, J.X. (2007) Research Status and Prospect of Sn-Zn Based Lead-Free Solders. Welding and Joining, 2, 31-35.
[19] El Daly, A.A. and Hammad, A.E. (2010) Elastic Properties and Thermal Behavior of Sn-Zn Based Lead-Free Solder Alloys, 505, 793-800.
[20] Zhao, G.J., Sheng, G.M., Wu, L.L. and Yuan, Z.J. (2012) Interfacial Characteristics and Microstructural Evolution of Sn-6.5Zn Solder/Cu Substrate Joints during Aging. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22, 1954-1960.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(11)61413-1
[21] Glazer, J. (1994) Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pb-Free Solder Alloys for Low-Cost Electronic Assembly: A Review. Journal of Electronic Materials, 23, 693-700.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02651361
[22] El-Daly, A.A., Swilem, Y., Makled, M.H., El-Shaarawy, M.G. and Abdraboh, A.M. (2009) Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn-Bi Lead-Free Solder Alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 484, 134-142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.04.108
[23] Fries, S.G., Lukas, H.L., Kuang, S. and Effenberg, G. (1991) Calculation of the Al-Zn-Sn Ternary System. The Institute of Metals, London, 280-286.
[24] Matsugi, K., Sasaki, G., Yanagisawa, O., Kumagai, Y. and Fujii, K. (2007) Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Pb-Free Sn-Zn Alloys for an AC-Low Voltage Fuse Element. Materials Transactions, 48, 1105-1112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.48.1105
[25] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/thermal_expansion
[26] Kasap, S.O. (2002) Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
http://Materials.Usask.Ca
[27] Gouda, E.S. and Aziz, H.A. (2012) Effect of Bi Additions on Structure and Properties of Sn-9Zn-1Ag Lead-Free Solder Alloys. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 2, 6381-6388.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.