Is State Anhedonia Characteristic of Parkinson’s Disease?


Anhedonia, the lowered ability to experience pleasure, is one of the non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Recently, the distinction between consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia has been proposed and anhedonia, notably in PD, could constitute a stable characteristic (anhedonia-trait) or secondary symptom (anhedonia-state). Several studies, using healthy control groups, reported high state consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia in PD using the Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), but when control groups included subjects with different illnesses no significant differences were reported. The aim of the present study was to compare PD subjects with subjects presenting a non-Parkinson motor neurological disease on the anhedonia subscale of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). This subscale rated consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia state. No significant difference was reported. This result confirmed that PD subjects were not characterized by high levels of state anhedonia when the subjects were compared to subjects with a different disease. Contrary to trait consummatory anhedonia, state anhedonia could be nonspecific to Parkinson’s disease.

Share and Cite:

Loas, G. and Krystkowiak, P. (2015) Is State Anhedonia Characteristic of Parkinson’s Disease?. Advances in Aging Research, 4, 225-229. doi: 10.4236/aar.2015.46024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Dyduch, A. and Zaluska, M. (2015) Depression in Parkinson’s Disease: The Effectiveness and Risk of Pharmacotherapy. Clinical Review. Psychogeriatrics, 15, 147-153.
[2] Loas, G., Krystkowiak, P. and Godefroy, O. (2012) Anhedonia in Parkinson’s Disease: An Overview. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 444-451.
[3] Assogna, F., Cravello, L., Caltagirone, C. and Spalletta, G. (2011) Anhedonia in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Movement Disorders, 26,1825-1834.
[4] Pluck, G.C. and Brown, R.G. (2002) Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 73, 636-642.
[5] Isella, V., Iurlaro, S., Piolti, R., Ferrarese, C., Frattola, L., Appollonio, I., et al. (2003) Physical Anhedonia in Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 74, 1308-1311.
[6] Lemke, M.R., Brecht, H.M., Koester, J., Kraus, P.H. and Reichmann, H. (2005) Anhedonia, Depression, and Motor Functioning in Parkinson’s Disease during Treatment with Pramipexole. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 214-220.
[7] Santangelo, G., Morgante, L., Savica, R., Marconi, R., Grasso, L., Antonini, D., et al. (2009) Anhedonia and Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: Italian Validation of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale and Its Application in the Clinical Routine Practice during the PRIAMO Study. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 15, 576-581.
[8] Fujiwara, S., Kimura, F., Hosokawa, T., Ishida, S., Sugino, M. and Hanafusa, T. (2011) Anhedonia in Japanese Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 11, 275-281.
[9] Jordan, L.L., Zahodne, L.B., Okun, M.S. and Bowers, D. (2013) Hedonic and Behavioral Deficits Associated with Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: Potential Treatment Implications. Movement Disorders, 28, 1301-1304.
[10] Loas, G., Duru, C., Godefroy, O. and Krystkowiak, P. (2014) Hedonic Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease: Is Consummatory Anhedonia Specific? Frontiers in Neurology, 5, 24.
[11] Gard, D.E., Germans Gard, M., Kring, A.M. and John, O.P. (2006) Anticipatory and Consummatory Components of the Experience of Pleasure: A Scale Development Study. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1086-1102.
[12] Loas, G. and Krystkowiak, P. (2010) The Measurement of Anhedonia in Parkinson’s Disease: Psychometric Properties of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Relevance to Distinguish Anticipatory and Consummatory Anhedonias. Movement Disorders, 25, 523-524.
[13] Zahodne, L.B., Marsiske, M., Okun, M.S. and Bowers, D. (2012) Components of Depression in Parkinson Disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 25, 131-137.
[14] Chapman, L.J., Chapman, J.P. and Raulin, M. (1976) Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 374-382.
[15] Snaith, R.P., Hamilton, M., Morley, S. and Humayan, A. (1995) A Scale for the Assessment of the Hedonic Tone: The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 99-103.
[16] Joiner, T.E., Brown, J.S. and Metalsky, G.I. (2003) A Test of the Tripartite Model’s Prediction of Anhedonia’s Specificity to Depression: Patients with Major Depression versus Patients with Schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 119, 243-250.
[17] Gard, D.E., Kring, A.M., Germans Gard, M., Horan, W.P. and Green, M.F. (2007) Anhedonia in Schizophrenia: Distinction between Anticipatory and Consummatory Pleasure. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 253-260.
[18] Loas, G., Monestes, J.L., Ameller, A., Bubrovszky, M., Yon, V., Wallier, J., Berthoz, S., Corcos, M., Thomas, P. and Gard, D.E. (2009) Traduction et étude de validation de la version française de l’échelle d’expérience temporelle du plaisir (EETP, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale [TEPS], Gard et al., 2006): étude chez 125 étudiants et chez 162 sujets présentant un trouble psychiatrique Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique, 167, 641-648.
[19] Winer, E.S., Veilleux, J.C. and Ginger, E.J. (2014) Development and validation of the Specific Loss of Interest and Pleasure Scale (SLIPS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-154, 193-201.
[20] Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., Ball, R. and Ranieri, W. (1996) Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories-IA and -II in Psychiatric Outpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 588-597.
[21] Centre de Psychologie Appliquée (1996) Validation de la version française du BDI-II. Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée, Paris.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.