The Applicability of Gd-DTPA Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent for the Evaluation of Blood Compartment Flow Distribution in Hollow Fiber Hemodialyzers

DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2015.811075   PDF   HTML   XML   4,669 Downloads   5,152 Views   Citations


Observation of flow distribution pattern in the hemodialyzers is significant as it is a valuable in-dication of the performance of these modules. Therefore, in this study, a feasible non-destructive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique is proposed to characterize the flow distribution in the blood compartment of hemodialyzers using Gd-DTPA MRI contrast agent. The distribution of flow is qualitatively observed in two commercial clinical dialyzers through an in-vitro experiment. The contrast enhanced T1 weighted images are acquired along the dialyzer length using Spin Echo (SE) pulse sequence after an injection of 0.5 mmol/L Gd-DTPA solution into the blood compartment. Although relatively uniform flow distribution pattern over the spatial volume of transverse images, close the dialyzer inlet is observed, the heterogeneity of flow distribution can be identified towards the blood outlet port. Furthermore, the signal intensity profiles formed by the injected Gd-DTPA are gradually decreased towards the outlet port. These results of the study suggest that although no advanced techniques and protocols available, MRI and Gd-DTPA contrast agent can be utilized to characterize the flow distribution within a dialyzer qualitatively.

Share and Cite:

Weerakoon, B. and Osuga, T. (2015) The Applicability of Gd-DTPA Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent for the Evaluation of Blood Compartment Flow Distribution in Hollow Fiber Hemodialyzers. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 8, 789-796. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2015.811075.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Poh, C.K., Hardy, P.A., Liao, Z., Huang, Z., Clark, W.R. and Gao, D. (2003) Effect of Flow Baffles on the Dialysate Flow Distribution of Hollow-Fiber Hemodialyzers: A Nonintrusive Experimental Study Using MRI. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 125, 481-489.
[2] Liao, Z., Poh, C.K., Huang, Z., Hardy, P.A., Clark, W.R. and Gao, D. (2003) A Numerical and Experimental Study of Mass Transfer in the Artificial Kidney. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 125, 472-480.
[3] Osuga, T., Obata, T. and Ikehira, H. (2004) Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Flow Motion of Heavy Water Injected into a Hollow Fiber Dialyzer Filled with Saline. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 22, 413-416.
[4] Ding, W., Li, W., Sun, S., Zhou, X., Hardy, P.A., Ahmad, S. and Gao, D. (2015) Three-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Artificial Kidneys. Artificial Organs, 39, E79-E89.
[5] Vander Velde, C. and Leonard, E.F. (1985) Theoretical Assessment of the Effect of Flow Mal-Distributions on the Mass Transfer Efficiency of Artificial Organs. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 23, 224-229.
[6] Ronco, C., Brendolan, A., Crepaldi, C., Rodighiero, M. and Scabardi, M. (2002) Blood and Dialysate Flow Distributions in Hollow-Fiber Hemodialyzers Analyzed by Computerized Helical Scanning Technique. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 13, S53-S61.
[7] Annan, K. (2012) Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamic Exchange of Solutes during Bicarbonate Dialysis. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 55, 1691-1704.
[8] Park, J.K. and Chang, H.N. (1986) Flow Distribution in the Fiber Lumen Side of a Hollow-Fiber Module. AIChE Journal, 32, 1937-1947.
[9] Takesawa, S., Terasawa, M., Sakagami, M., Kobayashi, T., Hidai, H. and Sakai, K. (1988) Nondestructive Evaluation by X-Ray Computed Tomography of Dialysate Flow Patterns in Capillary Dialyzers. ASAIO Journal, 34, 794-799.
[10] Pangrle, B.J., Walsh, E.G., Moore, S. and DiBiasio, D. (1989) Investigation of Fluid Flow Patterns in a Hollow Fiber Module Using Magnetic Resonance Velocity Imaging. Biotechnology Techniques, 3, 67-72.
[11] Poh, C.K., Hardy, P.A., Liao, Z., Clark, W.R. and Gao, D. (2003) Nonintrusive Characterization of Fluid Transport Phenomena in Hollow-Fiber Membrane Modules Using MRI: An Innovative Experimental Approach. Membrane Science and Technology, 8, 89-122.
[12] Zhang, J., Parker, D.L. and Leypoldt, J.K. (1995) Flow Distributions in Hollow Fiber Hemodialyzers Using Magnetic Resonance Fourier Velocity Imaging. ASAIO Journal, 41, M678-M682.
[13] Osuga, T., Obata, T. and Ikehira, H. (2004) Detection of Small Degree of Nonuniformity in Dialysate Flow in Hollow-Fiber Dialyzer Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 22, 417-420.
[14] Gussoni, M., Greco, F., Vezzoli, A., Osuga, T. and Zetta, L. (2001) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Molecular Transport in Living Morning Glory Stems. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 19, 1311-1322.
[15] Ronco, C., Ghezzi, P.M., Metry, G., Spittle, M., Brendolan, A., Rodighiero, M.P., Milan, M., Zanella, M., Greca, G.L. and Levin, N.W. (2001) Effects of Hematocrit and Blood Flow Distribution on Solute Clearance in Hollow-Fiber Hemodialyzers. Nephron, 89, 243-250.
[16] Hardy, P.A., Poh, C.K., Liao, Z., Clark, W.R. and Gao, D. (2002) The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Measure the Local Ultrafiltration Rate in Hemodialyzers. Journal of Membrane Science, 204, 195-205.
[17] Lu, J. and Lu, W.Q. (2010) Blood Flow Velocity and Ultra-Filtration Velocity Measured by CT Imaging System inside a Densely Bundled Hollow Fiber Dialyzer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53, 1844-1850.
[18] Brendolan, A., Ronco, C., Ghezzi, P.M. and La Greca, G. (1999) Hydraulic and Flow Dynamic Characteristics of Vitamin E-Bonded Dialyzers. Contributions to Nephrology, 127, 79-88.
[19] Osuga, T. and Han, S. (2004) Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffusion of High-and Low-Molecular-Weight Contrast Agents in Opaque Porous Media Saturated with Water. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 22, 1039-1042.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.