Activation of Jordanian Ore Bentonite by Sodium Carbonates


The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has a large reserve of raw Bentonite in the area of Ain Al-Baida at Basin of Al-Azraq city that has not activated yet to become valid as drilling mud. The Ore Ain AL-Baida Bentonite was investigated and activated by Na2CO3. The products were investigated by chemical analysis, X-Ray Diffraction, rheological properties and free swelling index with clay fraction. It was observed that the activities clay ranged between 0.98 < AC < 1.48 medium to high content of clay minerals. In addition, it was determined the Atterberg limits, the results of plasticity chart and relation between index and clay fraction. This means that the amount of the attracted water will be suitable influenced by the clay that is present in Ore Ain Al-Baida bentonite. The liquid limit was ranged between 83% to 140%, and plastic limit ranged between 39% - 48%. Also, rheological properties (apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity), gel strength, yield point, filtrate loss. These properties have been compared with those standard specifications properties required for the drilling fluid in order to know the appropriate circumstances to activate the Bentonite ore of Ain Al Baida at Azraq basin to become close to the standard specifications required for the drilling fluids, the ratio between Y.P/P.V was ranged 0.88 to 1.21, it is meant that the behavior of drilling fluids confirms the Bingham plastic and power-law rheological models using fine grinding of bentonite mixture with 3% - 6% concentration of sodium carbonate powder.

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Saleh, S.K. and Mahasneh, M.A. (2015) Activation of Jordanian Ore Bentonite by Sodium Carbonates. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 3, 477-487. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.36050.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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