In the Heart of Femtosecond Laser Induced Nanogratings: From Porous Nanoplanes to Form Birefringence


It is demonstrated that the form birefringence related to the so-called nanogratings is quantitatively correlated to the porosity-filling factor of these nanostructures. We reveal that matters surrounding the nanopores exhibit significant refractive index decrease which is likely due to the fictive temperature increase and/or the presence of a significant amount of interstitial O2. The control of the porosity was achieved by adjusting the laser pulse energy and the number of pulses/micron i.e. the overlapping rate. Applications can be numerous in fast material processing by the production of nanoporous matter, and photonics by changing the optical properties.

Share and Cite:

Desmarchelier, R. , Poumellec, B. , Brisset, F. , Mazerat, S. and Lancry, M. (2015) In the Heart of Femtosecond Laser Induced Nanogratings: From Porous Nanoplanes to Form Birefringence. World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, 5, 115-125. doi: 10.4236/wjnse.2015.54014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ams, M., Marshall, G., Dekker, P., Dubov, M., Mezentsev, V., Bennion, I. and Withford, M. (2008) Investigation of Ultrafast Laser-Photonic Material Interactions: Challenges for Directly Written Glass Photonics. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 14, 1370-1381.
[2] Gattass, R.R. and Mazur, E. (2008) Femtosecond Laser Micromachining in Transparent Materials. Nature Photonics, 2, 219-225.
[3] Itoh, K., Watanabe, W., Nolte, S. and Schaffer, C. (2006) Ultrafast Processes for Bulk Modification of Transparent Materials. MRS BULLETIN, 31, 620-625.
[4] Qiu, J., Miura, K. and Hirao, K. (2008) Femtosecond laser-Induced Microfeatures in Glasses and Their Applications. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 354, 1100-1111.
[5] Lancry, M., Poumellec, B., Chahid-Erraji, A., Beresna, M. and Kazansky, P. (2011) Dependence of the Femtosecond Laser Refractive Index Change Thresholds on the Chemical Composition of Doped-Silica Glasses. Optical Materials Express, 1, 711-723.
[6] Poumellec, B., Lancry, M., Chahid-Erraji, A. and Kazansky, P. (2011) Modification Thresholds in Femtosecond Laser Processing of Pure Silica: Review of Dependencies on Laser Parameters. Optical Materials Express, 1, 766-782.
[7] Eaton, S., Zhang, H., Herman, P., Yoshino, F., Shah, L., Bovatsek, J. and Arai, A. (2005) Heat Accumulation Effects in Femtosecond Laser-Written Waveguides with Variable Repetition Rate. Optics Express, 13, 4708-4716.
[8] Schaffer, C., Brodeur, A., Garcia, J. and Mazur, E. (2001) Micromachining Bulk Glass by Use of Femtosecond Laser Pulses with Nanojoule Energy. Optics Letters, 26, 93-95.
[9] Bricchi, E., Klappauf, B. and Kazansky, P. (2004) Form Birefringence and Negative Index Change Created by Femtosecond Direct Writing in Transparent Materials. Optics Letters, 29, 119-121.
[10] Poumellec, B., Lancry, M., Poulin, J. and Ani-Joseph, S. (2008) Non Reciprocal Writing and Chirality in Femtosecond Laser Irradiated Silica. Optics Express, 16, 18354-18361.
[11] Sudrie, L., Franco, M., Prade, B. and Mysyrowicz, A. (1999) Writing of Permanent Birefringent Microlayers in Bulk Fused Silica with Femtosecond Laser Pulses. Optics Communications, 171, 279-284.
[12] Lancry, M., Niay, P. and Douay, M. (2005) Comparing the Properties of Various Sensitization Methods in H2-Loaded, UV Hypersensitized or OH-Flooded Standard Germanosilicate Fibers. Optics Express, 13, 4037-4043.
[13] Lancry, M. and Poumellec, B. (2013) UV Laser Processing and Multiphoton Absorption Processes in optical Telecommunication Fibers Materials. Physics Reports, 523, 207-229.
[14] Eaton, S.M., Ng, M.L., Osellame, R. and Herman, P.R. (2010) High Refractive Index Contrast in Fused Silica Waveguides by Tightly Focused, High-Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids.
[15] Bricchi, E. and Kazansky, P. (2006) Extraordinary Stability of Anisotropic Femtosecond Direct-Written Structures Embedded in Silica Glass. Applied Physics Letters, 88, 111119-111119.
[16] Shimotsuma, Y., Kazansky, P., Qiu, J. and Hirao, K. (2003) Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses. Physical Review Letters, 91, Article ID: 247405.
[17] Bhardwaj, V., Simova, E., Rajeev, P., Hnatovsky, C., Taylor, R., Rayner, D. and Corkum, P. (2006) Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures Inside Fused Silica. Physical Review Letters, 96, Article ID: 057404.
[18] Canning, J., Lancry, M., Cook, K., Weickman, A., Brisset, F. and Poumellec, B. (2011) Anatomy of Femtosecond Laser processed Silica Waveguide. Optical Materials Express, 1, 998-1008.
[19] Lancry, M., Poumellec, B., Canning, J., Cook, K., Poulin, J.C. and Brisset, F. (2013) Ultrafast Nanoporous Silica Formation Driven by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation. Laser & Photonics Reviews, 7, 953-962.
[20] Yang, W.J., Bricchi, E., Kazansky, P.G., Bovatsek, J. and Arai, A.Y. (2006) Self-Assembled Periodic Sub-Wavelength Structures by Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing. Optics Express, 14, 10117-10124.
[21] Bricchi, E., Klappauf, B.G. and Kazansky, P.G. (2004) Form Birefringence and Negative Index Change Created by Femtosecond Direct Writing in Transparent Materials. Optics letters, 29, 119-121.
[22] Lancry, M., Desmarchelier, R., Cook, K., Canning, J. and Poumellec, B. (2014) Compact Birefringent Waveplates Photo-Induced in Silica by Femtosecond Laser. Micromachines, 5, 825-838.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.