Quantitative Genetic Variation in Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) Provenances


Twelve (12) Acacia senegal provenances were evaluated at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Gum Arabic Sub-Station Gashua, Yobe state. Gum yield and some morphological data were collect in three years to estimate mean effects, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in Acacia senegal provenances. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant difference for all traits. Genetic component analysis showed that both genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PVC) were high for all the traits except bark thickness. PCV was higher in proportion than GCV with respect to all the traits. Gum yield gave the highest relative difference (RD) over other traits. Heritability estimates were high for bark thickness (77.36) and stem diameter (61.75). Expected genetic advance was high in number of tree incision (1.29), stem diameter (1.54) and yield in kg/ha (22.31). This study indicated that there was sufficient genetic variability in Acacia senegal provenances that could be used as a base for improvement of yield and other component attributes of this species through direct selection and hybridization.

Share and Cite:

Fakuta, N. , Ojiekpon, I. , Gashua, I. and Ogunremi, O. (2015) Quantitative Genetic Variation in Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) Provenances. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 2826-2831. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.618279.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Dorthe, J. (2000) Acacia senegal (L) Willd Seed Leaflet. Danida Forest Seed Center, Denmark, No. 5, 1-2.
[2] Duke, J.A. (1981) Handbook of LEGUMES of World Economic Importance. Plenum Press, New York.
[3] Jamal, A. and Huntsinger, L.C. (1993) Deterioration of Sustainable Agro-Silvi-Pastoral System in the Sudan: The Gum Gardens of Kordofan. Agroforestry Systems, 23, 23-38.
[4] Awouda, H.M. (1989) Outlook for Gum Arabic: Production and Supply. Report to the Gum Arabic Company, Khartoum, 18 p.
[5] Anderson, D.M. (1993) Some Factors Influencing the Demand of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Willdnd Other Water-Soluble Tree Exudates. Forest Ecology and Management, 58, 1-18.
[6] Leung, A.Y. (1980) Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredient Used in Food, Drug and Cosmetic. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
[7] Burley, J. and Wood, P.J. (1978) A Manual on Species and Provenance Research with Particular Reference to the Tropics. Tropical Forestry Papers No. 10, 34-61.
[8] FDA (2002) Baseline Survey of Gum Arabic Production in Nigeria. Federal Department of Agriculture in Collaboration with Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria and Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, p. 126.
[9] Ojiekpon, I.F. (2005) Proper Exploitation of Gum Arabic for Quality Control. In: Adegbehin, J.O., Ed., Training Manual on Gum Arabic Production, Proceedings of a Workshop, Gum Arabic Sub-Station, Tajuwa Village, Gashua, 18-20 October 2005, 21-30.
[10] Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1987) Statistical Method. 5th Edition, Iowa State University Press, 456.
[11] Duncan, D.B. (1955) Multiple Range and Multiple F-Tests. Biometrics, 11, 1-42.
[12] SAS Institute (2000) SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computer: Version 9.0. SAS Institute Inc., Cary.
[13] Johnson, H.W., Robinson, H.F. and Comstock, R.E. (1955) Estimates of Genetic and Environmental Variability in Soya Bean. Agronomy Journal, 47, 318-324.
[14] Burton, G.N. and Devane, E.M. (1953) Estimating Heritability in Fall Fescue (Festuca arundiancea L.) from Replicated Clonal Materials. Agronomy Journal, 45, 478-481.
[15] Nechif, O.R., Filimon, R.B. and Szilagyi, L. (2011) Genetic Variability, Heritability and Expected Genetic Advance as Indices for Yield and Yield Components Selection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Scientific Papers, UASVM Bucharest, Series A, 1222-5339.
[16] Acquaah, G. (2007) Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding. Blackwell Publishers, Malden, 142-145.
[17] Falconer, D.S. and Mackay, T.F.C. (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. 4th Edition, Benjamin Cummings, England.
[18] Anders, R., Lars, G. and Lambart, G.O. (2003) Evaluation of Provenance Trial of Acacia senegal at Gonse Burkina Faso. Trial No. 12 in the Arid Zone Series, Danida Forest Seed Centre, Denmark and Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome., No. 5, 1-41.
[19] Jean-Michel, H., Mama, N., Bertrand, M., Clement, F.N., Jean-Marie, T., Jean-Christophe, B., Philippe, T. and Régis, P. (2012) Gum Arabic Production in Acacia senegal Plantations in the Sudanian Zone of Cameroon: Effects of Climate, Soil, Tapping Date and Tree Provenance. Bois et Forêts Des Tropiques, No. 311, 21-33.
[20] Fakuta, N.M., Ojiekpon, I.F., Waizah, Y. and Gurin, A.S. (2010) Variability in Pod and Seed Traits on Juvenile Growth Performance of Acacia senegal (L) Willd Provenances of Sudan and Sahelian Origin of Yobe State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, 18-22 October 2010.
[21] Deshmukh, S.N., Basu, M.S. and Reddy, P.S. (1992) Genetic Variability, Character Associations and Path Coefficient Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Virginia Bunch Varieties of Ground Nut. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 56, 515-518.
[22] Fakuta, N.M., Ojiekpon, I.F., Simon, S.Y. and Gani, M. (2013) Genetical Studies for Seedling Growth Traits in Relation to Early Tapping Maturity of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L) Willd). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1, 248-251.
[23] Cornelius, J. (1994) Heritabilities and Additive Genetic Coefficients of Variation in Trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 372-379.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.