Share This Article:

Assessing Cleaner Energy Alternatives for Bus Transit in Rio de Janeiro: A Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:4101KB) PP. 1197-1218
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611107    3,224 Downloads   3,681 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

From 2003 to 2009 in Brazilian municipalities of over 60,000 inhabitants, buses accounted for more than 25% of urban trips. This trend is not expected to change in the medium term. Worldwide, buses rely on petroleum diesel as fuel. In Brazil, alternative fuels such as biodiesel, natural gas and ethanol are available and the choice among them should depend on the assessment of the entire life cycle of such fuels. This paper uses a Life Cycle Inventory, which is essential to the implementation of a Life Cycle Assessment, to assess six energy alternatives: petroleum diesel, biodiesel, petroleum diesel with 5% of biodiesel, compressed natural gas, additivated hydrous ethanol and dual-fuel system composed by petroleum diesel with 5% of biodiesel and compressed natural gas. In saving total energy consumption, pure petroleum diesel or mixed with 5% biodiesel and dual-fuel systems stand out, in that order. If renewable energy use and net carbon dioxide emissions reduction are the goals, ethanol and biodiesel should be given preference. The addition of 5% of biodiesel in petroleum diesel increases the share of renewable energy in the supply chain of petroleum diesel by 47.5% with an increase of 0.58% in total energy consumption and a reduction of 3.8% in net CO2 emissions during the life cycle. In the case of biodiesel, the addition of 5% of biodiesel in petroleum diesel increases the share of renewable energy in the supply chain by 51.15% with an increase of 0.03% in the total energy consumption and a decrease of 7% in net CO2 emissions in the life cycle. The use of 5% of biodiesel in petroleum diesel does not significantly affect the use of renewable energy (+0.69%) or total energy consumption (+0.04%) in ethanol supply chain, which already shows a great use of renewable energy input. However, a decrease of 9.29% in the net CO2 emissions in the supply chain occurs, which reaches 5.28% in the life cycle.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

D’Agosto, M. , Oliveira, C. , Assumpção, F. and Deveza, A. (2015) Assessing Cleaner Energy Alternatives for Bus Transit in Rio de Janeiro: A Life Cycle Inventory Analysis. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1197-1218. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.611107.

References

[1] EPE (2010) Brazilian Energy Balance. Energy Research Company, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brasilia, DF. (In Portuguese)
[2] D’Agosto, M. de A., Ribeiro, S.K. and Souza, C.D.R. (2013) Opportunity to Reduce Greenhouse Gas by the Use of Alternative Fuels and Technologies in Urban Public Transport in Brazil. Environmental Sustainability, 5, 177-183.
[3] D’Agosto, M. de A. and Ribeiro, S.K. (2009) Assessing Total and Renewable Energy in Brazilian Automotive Fuels: A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 1326-1337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.08.008
[4] Beer, T. and Grant, T. (2007) Life-Cycle Analysis of Emissions from Fuel Ethanol and Blends in Australian Heavy and Light Vehicles. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15, 833-837.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.003
[5] Blottnitz, H.V. and Curran, M.A. (2007) A Review of Assessments Conducted on Bio-Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel from a Net Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Environmental Life Cycle Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15, 607-619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.03.002
[6] Leng, R., Wang, C., Zhang, C., Dai, D. and Pu, G. (2008) Life Cycle Inventory and Energy Analysis of Cassava-Based Fuel Ethanol in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16, 374-384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.12.003
[7] Kendall, A. and Chang, B. (2009) Estimating Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Corn-Ethanol: A Critical Review of Current US Practices. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, 1175-1182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.03.003
[8] Yan, X. and Crookes, R.J. (2009) Life Cycle Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Road Transportation Fuels in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 2505-2514.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.06.012
[9] Luo, L., van der Voet, E. and Huppes, G. (2009) Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing of Bioethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 1613-1619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.09.024
[10] Nanaki, E.A. and Koroneos, C.J. (2009) Comparative LCA of the Use of Biodiesel, Diesel and Gasoline for Transportation. Proceedings of the 1st International Energy, Life Cycle Assessment, and Sustainability Workshop & Symposium (ELCAS), Nisyros, 4-6 June 2009.
[11] Ometto, A.R. and Roma, W.N.L. (2010) Atmospheric Impacts of the Life Cycle Emissions of Fuel Ethanol in Brazil: Based on Chemical Energy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 71-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.09.003
[12] Nguyen, T.L.T., Gheewala, S.H. and Sagisaka, M. (2010) Greenhouse Gas Savings Potential of Sugar Cane Bio-Energy Systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 412-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.12.012
[13] Morais, S., Mata, T.M., Martins, A.A., Pinto, G.A. and Costa, C.A.V. (2010) Simulation and Life Cycle Assessment of Process Design Alternatives for Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oils. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 1251-1259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.04.014
[14] Khatiwada, D. and Silveira, S. (2011) Greenhouse Gas Balances of Molasses Based Ethanol in Nepal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19, 1471-1485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.04.012
[15] Hou, J., Zhang, P., Yuan, X. and Zheng, Y. (2011) Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel from Soybean, Jatropha and Microalgae in China Conditions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 5081-5091.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.048
[16] Moriizumi, Y., Suksri, P., Hondo, H. and Wake, Y. (2012) Effect of Biogas Utilization and Plant Co-Location on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Cassava Ethanol Production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 37, 326-334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.035
[17] Iglesias, L., Laca, A., Herrero, M. and Díaz, M. (2012) A Life Cycle Assessment Comparison between Centralized and Decentralized Biodiesel Production from Raw Sunflower Oil and Waste Cooking Oils. Journal of Cleaner Production, 37, 162-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.002
[18] Silalertruksa, T., Bonnet, S. and Gheewala, S.H. (2012) Life Cycle Costing and Externalities of Palm Oil Biodiesel in Thailand. Journal of Cleaner Production, 28, 225-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.07.022
[19] Jørgensen, A., Bikker, P. and Herrmanna, I.T. (2012) Assessing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Poultry Fat Biodiesel. Journal of Cleaner Production, 24, 85-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.11.011
[20] Kochaphum, C., Gheewala, S.H. and Vinitnantharat, S. (2012) Environmental Comparison of Straight Run Diesel and Cracked Diesel. Journal of Cleaner Production, 37, 142-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.06.023
[21] Gil, M.P., Moya, A.M.C. and Domínguez, E.R. (2013) Life Cycle Assessment of the Cogeneration Processes in the Cuban Sugar Industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 41, 222-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.006
[22] Rajaeifar, M.A., Ghobadian, B., Safa, M. and Heidari, M.D. (2014) Energy Life-Cycle Assessment and CO2 Emissions Analysis of Soybean Based Biodiesel: A Case Study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 66, 233-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.10.041
[23] SMTr (2006) Transportation Master Plan of the City of Rio de Janeiro. Municipal Transport, City Hall of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese)
[24] Souza, C.D.R., Silva, S.D., Silva, M.A.V., D’Agosto, M.A. and Barboza, A.P. (2013) Inventory of Conventional Air Pollutants Emissions from Road Transportation for the State of Rio de Janeiro. Energy Policy, 53, 125-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.10.021
[25] Jansen, R., Rutz, D., Hofer, A., Santos, J.M., Coelho, S.S., Velasquez, S., Capaccioli, S., Landhal, G. and Ericson, J. (2010) Bioethanol as a Sustainable Transport Fuel in Brazil and Europe. Proceedings of the Eighteenth European Bio-mass Conference and Exhibition, Lyon, 3-7 May 2010.
[26] Tsoutsos, T., Kouloumpis, V., Zafiris, T. and Foteinis, S. (2010) Life Cycle Assessment for Biodiesel Production under Greek Climate Conditions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 328-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.11.002
[27] ANP (2010) Brazilian Statistical Yearbook of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels. National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese)
[28] Dobson, H. and Beresford, A. (1989) Maritime Atlas of World Ports and Shipping Places. Lloyd’s of London Press Ltd., London.
[29] Freitas, R.C. (2010) Profile of Liquid Fuel Fleet. Supply Superintendency—SAB, National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese)
[30] Menezes, H.L. (2004) Operating Procedures at the Caxias Core (DPPI). Personal Communication, Head of Caxias Core, Brazilian Oil Company Ipiranga, Distribution Base, Duque de Caxias. (in Portuguese)
[31] ANP (2010) Data of Production and Fuel Consumption. National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese)
[32] Sheehan, J., Camobreco, V., Duffield, J., Grabowski, M. and Shapouri, H. (1998) Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. Final Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/658310
[33] Freitas, R.C. (2011) Data on Biofuels Supply (Ethanol and Biodiesel) in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Supply Superintendency—SAB, National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese)
[34] Coelho, S.T., Oliveira Jr., S. and Zylbersztajn, D. (1997) Thermoeconomic Analysis of Electricity Cogeneration from Sugarcane Origin. Proceedings of the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas, Montreal, 24-29 August 1997, 1631-1640.
[35] PETROBRAS-CONPET (2003) Report on Energy Conservation in the Petrobras System C-CONPET. Petroleo Brasileiro SA, Rio de Janeiro. (In Portuguese)
[36] Silveira, G.M. (1991) The Machines to Harvest and Transport. Editora Globo S.A, São Paulo. (In Portuguese)
[37] Boustead, I. and Hancock, G.F. (1979) Handbook of Industrial Energy Analysis. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 391.
[38] IEA (1999) Automotive Fuels for the Future: The Search for Alternatives. Office of Energy Efficiency Technology and R&D, International Energy Agency, Paris.
[39] EUCAR (2007) Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context. European Council for Automotive R&D, European Commission, Version 2c.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.