Share This Article:

Long-Term Study of Lake Evaporation and Evaluation of Seven Estimation Methods: Results from Dickie Lake, South-Central Ontario, Canada

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:995KB) PP. 59-77
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.12010    7,552 Downloads   14,731 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment


Establishing satisfactory calculation methods of lake evaporation has been crucial for research and manage-ment of water resources and ecosystems. A 30 year dataset from Dickie Lake, south-central Ontario, Canada added to the limited long-term studies on lake evaporation. Evaporation during ice-free season was calcu-lated separately using seven evaporation methods, based on field meteorology, hydrology and lake water temperature data. Actual evaporation determined during a portion of a year was estimated using a lake en-ergy budget model, and the estimation was used as reference evaporation for evaluation of the seven methods. The deviation of method-induced evaporation from the reference evaporation was compared among the seven methods, and a performance rank was proposed based on the root mean squared deviation and coeffi-cient of efficiency. As for the whole ice-free season (roughly May to November), the water balance was the best method, followed by Makkink, DeBruin-Kejiman, Penman, Priestley-Taylor, Hamon, and Jensen-Haise methods. As for shorter duration (a week to a month), the DeBruin-Kejiman was the best method, followed by Penman, Priestley-Taylor, Makkink, Hamon, Jensen-Haise, and water balance method. Annual and sea-sonal changes of energy budget terms and the compensation function of lake heat storage in evaporation flux were also analyzed.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

H. YAO, "Long-Term Study of Lake Evaporation and Evaluation of Seven Estimation Methods: Results from Dickie Lake, South-Central Ontario, Canada," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2009, pp. 59-77. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.12010.


[1] G. Krantzberg, “The Great Lakes, a 35th year anniversary: Time to look forward,” Electronic Green Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 1–4, 2008.
[2] N. D. Yan, A. M. Paterson, K. M. Somers, and W. A. Scheider, “An introduction to the Dorset special issue: transforming understanding of factors that regulate aquatic ecosystems on the southern Canadian Shield,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 65, pp. 781–785, 2008.
[3] J. J. Gibson and W. D. Edwards, “Regional water balance trends and evaporation-transpiration portioning from a stable isotope survey of lakes in northern Canada,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 16, No. 10, pp. 1–14, 2002.
[4] Minnesota DNR Waters, “Lake-ground water interaction study at White Bear Lake, Minnesota,” Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Report, Minnesota, USA, 1998.
[5] G. Weyhenmeyer, “Rates of change in physical and chemical lake variables – are they comparable between large and small lakes?” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 599, pp. 105–110, 2008.
[6] J. D. Lenters, T. K. Kratz, and C. J. Bowser, “Effects of climate variability on lake evaporation: Results from a long-term energy budget study of Sparkling Lake, northern Wisconsin (USA),” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 308, pp. 168–195, 2005.
[7] J. J. Gibson, R. Reid, and C. Spence, “A six-year isotopic record of lake evaporation at a mine site in the Canadian subarctic: Results and validation,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 12, pp. 1779–1792, 1998.
[8] Y. Mahrer and S. Assouline, “Evaporation from Lake Kinneret, 2. Estimaton of the horizontal variability using a two-dimensional numerical mesoscale model,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 29, pp. 911–916, 1993.
[9] W. Abtew, “Evaporation estimation for Lake Okeechobee in South Florida,” Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 127, pp. 140–147, 2001.
[10] R. J. Dos Reis and N. L. Dias, “Multi-season lake evaporation: energy-budget estimates and CRLE model assessment with limited meteorological observations,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 208, pp. 135–147, 1998.
[11] U.S. Geological Survey, “Estimating Evaporation from Lake Mead,” USGS Scientific Investigations Report, No. 2006-5252, Arizona, USA, 2006.
[12] J. A. Amayreh, “Lake evaporation: a model study,” in Dissertation Abstracts International 57-03, Section B, Utah State University, pp. 1938, 1995.
[13] D. O. Rosenberry, D. I. Stannard, T. C. Winter, and M. L. Martinez, “Comparison of 13 equations for determining evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota, USA,” Wetlands, Vol. 24, pp. 483–497, 2004.
[14] D. O. Rosenberry, T. C. Winter, D. C. Buso, and G. E. Likens, “Comparison of 15 evaporation methods applied to a small mountain lake in the northeastern USA,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 340, pp. 149–166, 2007.
[15] E. Robertson and P. J. Barry, “The water and energy balances of Perch Lake (1969–1980),” Atmosphere-Ocean, Vol. 23, pp. 238–253, 1985.
[16] A. H. Rasmussen, M. Hondzo, and H. G. Stefan, “A test of several evaporation equations for water temperature simulations in lakes,” Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 31, pp. 1023–1028, 1995.
[17] P. F. Hamblin, H. A. Bootsma, and R. E. Hecky, “Surface meteorological observations over Lake Malawi/Nyasa,” Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 29, pp. 19–23, 2003.
[18] M. E. Keskin and O. Terzi, “Evaporation estimation models for Lake Egirdir, Turkey,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 20, pp. 2381–2391, 2006.
[19] E. T. Linacre, “Data-sparse estimation of lake evaporation, using a simplified Penman equation,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 64, pp. 237–256, 1993.
[20] W. A. Scheider, R. A. Reid, B. A. Locke, and L. D. Scott, “Studies of lakes and watersheds in Muskoka-Haliburton, Ontario: Methodology (1976–1982),” Data Report DR 83/1 of Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, Ontario, Canada, 1983.
[21] W. A. Scheider, C. M. Cox, and L. D. Scott, “Hydrological data for lakes and watersheds in Muskoka-Haliburton study area (1976–1980),” Data Report DR 83/6 of Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, Ontario, Canada, 1983.
[22] B. A. Hutchinson, L. D. Scott, M. N. Futter, and A. Morgan, “Hydrology data for lakes and catchments in Muskoka/Haliburton (1980–1992),” Data Report DR 93/2 of Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, Ontario, Canada, 1994.
[23] T. C. Winter, D. O. Rosenberry, and A. M. Sturrock, “Evaluation of 11 equations for determining evaporation fro a small lake in the north central United States,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 31, pp. 983–993, 1995.
[24] M. S. Mosner and B. T. Aulenbach, “Comparison of methods used to estimate lake evaporation for a water budget of Lake Semnole, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida,” in Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Water Resources Conference, Athens, Georgia, USA, 2003.
[25] C.-Y. Xu and V. P. Singh, “Evaluation and generalization of radiation-based methods for calculating evaporation,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 14, pp. 339–349, 2000.
[26] V. P. Singh and C.-Y. Xu, “Evaluation and generalization of 13 mass-transfer equations for determining free water evaporation,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 11, pp. 311– 323, 1997.
[27] F. Delclaux, A. Coudrain, and T. Condom, “Evaporation estimation on Lake Titicaca: a synthesis review and modelling,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 21, pp. 1664–1677, 2007.
[28] M. F. Sadek, M. M. Shahin, and C. L. Stigter, “Evaporation from the reservoir of the High Aswan Dam, Egypt: A new comparison of relevant methods with limited data,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 56, pp. 57–66, 1997.
[29] R. A. Reid, R. Girard, and A. C. Nicolls, “Morphometry and catchment areas for the calibrated watersheds,” Data Report DR 87/4 of Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, Ontario, Canada, 1987.
[30] V. T. Chow, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays, “Applied hydrology,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1988.
[31] A. L. Buck, “New equations for computing vapour pressure and enhancement factor,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 20, pp. 1527–1532, 1981.
[32] H. Yao and I. F. Creed, “Determining spatially-distributed annual water balances for ungauged locations on Shikoku Island, Japan: a comparison of two interpolators,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 50, pp. 245–263, 2005.
[33] J. Doorenbus and W. O. Pruitt, “Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements”, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 1977.
[34] H. Yao, A. Terakawa, and S. Chen, “Rice water use and response to potential climate changes: calculation and application to Jianghan, China,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Water Resources and Environment Research , Kyoto, Japan, Vol. 2, pp. 611–618, 1996.
[35] H. A. R. DeBruin and J. Q. Kejiman, “The Priestley-Taylor evaporation model applied to a large, shallow lake in the Netherlands,” Journal of Allied Meteorology, Vol. 18, pp. 898–903, 1979.
[36] K. J. Devito and P. Dillon, “Errors in estimating stream discharge in small headwater catchments: influence on interpretation of catchment yields and input – output budget estimates,” Technical Report 1993 of Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, Ontario, Canada, 1993.
[37] S. W. Hostetler and P. J. Bartlein, “Simulation of lake evaporation with application to modeling lake level variations of Harney-Malheur Lake, Oregon,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 26, pp. 2603–2612, 1990.
[38] N. G. Grannemann, R. J. Hunt, J. R. Nicholas, T. E. Reilly, and T. C. Winter, “The importance of ground water in the Great Lakes region,” Water-Resources Investigation Report 00-4008, U. S. Geological Survey, Lansing, Michigan, 2000.
[39] J. E. Nash and J. V. Sutcliffe, “River flow forecasting through conceptual models: Part I – a discussion of principles,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 10, pp. 282–290, 1970.
[40] E. T. Linacre, “Evaporation trends,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 79, pp. 11–21, 2004.
[41] R. K. Saxena, “Estimation of lake evaporation from a shallow lake in central Sweden by oxygen-18,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 10, pp. 1273–1281, 1998.
[42] R. K. Saxena, C. Jaedicke, and L. C. Lundin, “Comparison mass-balance, bulk aerodynamic and bowen ratio methods,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, Vol. 24, pp. 851– 859, 1999.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.