Evaluation of the Anti-Diabetic Potential of the Methanol Extracts of Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera and a Polyherb

DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2015.54033   PDF   HTML   XML   4,027 Downloads   4,666 Views   Citations


The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activities of methanol extracts of Aloe camperi (AC), Meriandra dianthera (MD) and a polyherbal drug (PH) in diabetes induced Wistar albino rats. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes was confirmed by the elevated blood glucose levels determined after 72 h of induction. Animals with mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) level more than 200 mg/dl were recruited for the experiment. The herbal extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and standard drugmetformin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to the diabetic rats for 21 days and the FBG level was estimated on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The herbal extracts showed dose-dependent fall in FBG levels and the result exhibited very significant (P < 0.001) decreases in FBG level by the end of the experimental day as compared to the diabetic control. The highest antihyperglycemic effect was observed by MD extract at 400 mg/kg and was comparable to the standard drug. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also conducted on normal rats and thus glucose at 2 g/kg per body weight was loaded via oral gavage to all groups 30 min after extract administration. All the groups showed significant increase (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in FBG level at 30 min following glucose loading. The hyperglycemia with glucose challenge was significantly brought down (P < 0.001) by all herbal extracts at 60 and 120 min relative to the negative control. Moreover, acute oral toxicity tests was conducted based on the protocols of OECD-425 and thus the LD50 of the herbal extracts was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. Statistical analysis was performed using One-Way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons, and values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.

Share and Cite:

Mussie, S.D., Kareru, P.G., Kericko, J.M., and Berhane, G.N. (2015) Evaluation of the Anti-diabetic Potential of the Methanol Extracts of Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera and a Polyherb. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] American Diabetes Association (2015) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical and Applied Research and Education, 38, 1.
[2] American Diabetes Association (2015) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 37, 1.
[3] World Health Organization (2011) Diabetes Definition.
[4] IDF (2011) Diabetes Definition. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
[5] Silvio, E.I., Richard, M.B., John, B.B., Michaela, D., et al. (2015) Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Patient-Cantered Approach. Diabetes Care, 38.
[6] IDF (2011) Diabetes Introduction. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
[7] Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., et al. (2004) Global Prevalence of Diabetes. Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, 27, 1047-1053.
[8] Rowley, W.R. and Bezold, C. (2012) Creating Public Awareness: State 2025 Diabetes Forecasts. Population Health Management, 15, 194-200.
[9] Danaei, G., Finucane, M.M., Lu, Y., Singh, G.M, Cowan, M.J., et al. (2011) National, Regional, and Global Trends in Fasting Plasma Glucose and Diabetes Prevalence Since 1980: Systematic Analysis of Health Examination Surveys and Epidemiological Studies with 370 Country-Years and 2.7 Million Participants. The Lancet, 378, 31-40.
[10] American Diabetes Association (2008) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 31, S55-S60.
[11] IDF (2011) Global Burden of Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
[12] IDF (2013) Diabetes Atlas. 6th Edition, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
[13] IDF (2013) Diabetes Atlas. 6th Edition Updated, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
[14] Jung, M., Park, M., Lee, H.C., Kang, Y.H., Kang, E.S. and Kim, S.K. (2006) Anti-Diabetic Agents from Medicinal Plants. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 13, 1203-1218.
[15] Chikezie, P.C., Ojiako, O.A. and Nwufo, K.C. (2015) Overview of Anti-Diabetic Medicinal Plants: The Nigerian Research Experience. Journal of Diabetes Metabolism, 6, 546.
[16] Patel, D.K., Prasad, S.K., Kumar, R. and Hemalatha, S. (2012) An Overview on Anti-Diabetic Medicinal Plants Having Insulin Mimetic Property. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2, 320-330.
[17] Kayarohanam, S. and Kavimani, S. (2015) Current Trends of Plants Having Antidiabetic Activity: A Review. Journal of Bioanalysis and Biomedicine, 7, 55-65.
[18] Lans, C.A. (2006) Ethnomedicines Used in Trinidad and Tobago for Urinary Problems and Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2, 45.
[19] Shanmugam, S., Manikandan, K. and Rajendran, K. (2009) Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes and Jaundice among the Villagers of Sivagangai District, Tamilnadu. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 13, 189-194.
[20] Shojaii, A., Dabaghian, F.H., Goushegir, A. and Fard, M.A. (2011) Antidiabetic Plants of Iran. Acta Medica Iranica, 49, 637-642.
[21] Frode, T.S. and Medeiros, Y.S. (2008) Animal Models to Test Drugs with Potential Antidiabetic Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 115, 173-183.
[22] Serreze, D.V., Niens, M., Kulik, J. and Dilorenzo, T.P. (2010) Bridging Mice to Men: Using HLA Transgenic Mice to Enhance the Future Prediction and Prevention of Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes in Humans. In: Proetzel, G. and Wiles, M.V., Eds., Mouse Models for Drug Discovery, Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 602, Humana Press, New York, 119-134.
[23] Mussie, S.D., Kareru, P.G., Keriko, J.M. and Berhane, G.N. (2015) Ethnobotanical Survey and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Plants Traditionally Used for Diabetes in Eritrea. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9, 1-11.
[24] Weber, O. (2013) Aloe camperi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
[25] Sebsebe, D. and Inger, N. (2010) Aloes and Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Shama Books, Addis Ababa.
[26] The Global Biodiversity Information Facility: GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, 2013-07-01.
[27] Bein, E., Habte, B., Jaber, A., Ann, B. and Tengnas, B. (1996) Useful Trees and Shrubs in Eritrea. Identification, Propagation and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Regal Press Limited, Nairobi, 364.
[28] Department of Environment, Ministry of Land, Water and Environment (2014) The 5th National Report on the Implementation of the UNCBD.
[29] Solomon, A., Balcha, A. and Mirutse, G. (2015) Study of Plants Traditionally Used in Public and Animal Health Management in Seharti Samre District, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11, 22.
[30] Animal Research Review Panel. ARRP Guideline 20: Guidelines for the Housing of Rats in Scientific Institutions.
[31] Brain, P.F. (1995) Rodents. In: O’Donoghue, P.N., Ed., The Accommodation of Laboratory Animals in Accordance with Animal Welfare Requirements, Proceedings of the International Workshop, Berlin, 17-19 May 1993, Bundesministerium für Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft und Forstei, 1-14.
[32] OECD (2001) Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Acute Oral Toxicity, Environmental Health and Safety Monograph Series on Testing and Adjustment No. 425, 1.
[33] USQ Animal Ethics Committee (2014) Standard Work Procedure. Rat Oral Glucose Tolerance Test AEC/SWP/DP001 Version 1.1, 14.
[34] Ayala, J.E., Samuel, V.T., Morton, G.J., Obici, S., Croniger, C.M., Shulman, G.I., Wasserman, D.H. and McGuinness, O.P. (2010) Standard Operating Procedures for Describing and Performing Metabolic Tests of Glucose Homeostasis in Mice. Disease Models and Mechanisms, 3, 525-534.
[35] Erhirhie, E.O., Emudainohwo, J.O. and Edafe, E.U. (2013) Effects of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum Combined Leave Extracts on Blood Glucose and Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Continental Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology Research, 6, 13-21.
[36] Sharma, N. and Garg, V. (2009) Antihyperglycaemic and Antioxidative Potential of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Butea monosperma Lam Flowers in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 47, 571-576.
[37] Glucose Tolerance Test at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).
[38] DeFronzo, R.A. and Abdul-Ghani, M. (2011) Assessment and Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk in Prediabetes: Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose. American Journal of Cardiology, 108, 3B-24B.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.