Characterization of TB/HIV Co-Infected Patients Receiving TB Treatment at a DOTS Clinic, in a Tertiary Hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a specific infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis while acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal illness caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both of them constitute the main burden of infectious public health disease in many parts of the world, particularly in resource limited countries like Nigeria. This study sets out to describe TB/HIV co-infected patients accessing care at the DOTS clinic in a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively at the DOTS clinic of NAUTH Nnewi. A structured proforma was used to extract specific characteristics of TB/HIV co-infected patients who received TB treatment for the period of 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2013. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Results: Ninety eight patients (40.6%) were TB/HIV co-infected, out of the two hundred and forty one patients treated for tuberculosis in the DOTS clinic during the period under review. These were the findings among the TB/HIV co-infected patients: there were more females (51%) than males (49%); the commonest age group affected was the group 30 - 39 years (34.7%); majority of the patients (91.8%) had pulmonary TB as against extrapulmonary TB (8.2%) and most of the patients had negative sputum AFB result (43.9%) as against those with positive result (36.7%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated some important characteristics of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Such knowledge if taken into consideration in both the tuberculosis control and HIV control programs will improve the outcomes of the programs.

Share and Cite:

Adinma, E. , Obi, D. , Azuike, E. , Mbanuzuru, V. and Iloghalu, I. (2015) Characterization of TB/HIV Co-Infected Patients Receiving TB Treatment at a DOTS Clinic, in a Tertiary Hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 3, 113-121. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2015.34017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Park, K. (2009) Preventive and Social Medicine. 20th Edition, M/S Banarsidas Bhanot, Jabalpur, 175.
[2] Obionu, C.N. (2007) Primary Health Care for Developing Countries. 2nd Edition, Evans Publishers, 149.
[3] World Health Organization (2010) Global Tuberculosis Control 2010.
[4] UNAIDS (2010) UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010.
[5] Getahun, H., Gunneberg, C., Granich, R. and Nunn, P. (2010) HIV Infection-Associated Tuberculosis: The Epidemiology and the Response. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50, 35201-5207.
[6] Corbett, E.L., Watt, C.J., Walker, N., Maher, D., Williams, B.G., et al. (2003) The Growing Burden of Tuberculosis: Global Trends and Interactions with the HIV Epidemic. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 1009-1021.
[7] Collins, K.R., Quinones-Mateu, M.E., Toossi, Z. and Arts, E.J. (2002) Impact of Tuberculosis on HIV-1 Replication, Diversity and Disease Progression. AIDS Reviews, 4, 165-176.
[8] World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) Global Tuberculosis Report 2012. WHO Press, Geneva.
[9] Ekwueme, O.C., Ezeoke, U.E. and Mgbeokwere, U. (2009) The Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Persons with TB and TB/HIV Co-Infection at the Chest Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of College of Medicine, 14, 6-17.
[10] Donald, C., Uday, S.S., Sidhyartha, M. and Deepak, S. (2010) Socio-Demographic Profiles of the Delayed Diagnosed Patients in RNTCP. Anand District. Healthline, 1, 45-48.
[11] Lawn, S.D., Bekker, L., Middelkoop, K., Myer, L. and Wood, R. (2006) Impact of HIVI Infection on the Epidemiologyof Tuberculosis in a Peri-Urban Community in South Africa: The Need for Age-Specific Interventions. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42, 1040-1047.
[12] World Health Organisation (2014) Tuberculosis Fact Sheet.
[13] Muhammad, U.M., Ubeera, S., Hussain, M.A., Anum, S., Fatima, O., et al. (2011) Urban-Rural Inequities in Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tuberculosis in Two Districts of Pakistan’s Punjab Province. International Journal for Equity in Health, 10, 8.
[14] Rajewswani, R., Balasubramanian, R., Muniyadi, M., Geetharamani, S., Theresa, X. and Venkatessa, P. (1999) Socio- Economic Impact of Tuberculosis on Patients and Family in India. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 3, 869-877.
[15] Sreeramareddy, C.T., Panduru, K.V., Verma, S.C., Joshi, H.S. and Bates, M.N. (2008) Comparison of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Nepal—A Hospital-Based Retrospective Study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 8, 8.
[16] Noertjojo, K., Tam, C.M., Chan, S.L. and Chan-Yeung, M.M. (2002) Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Hong Kong. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 6, 879-886.
[17] Musellin, B., Erturan, S., Sonmez, D.E. and Ongen, G. (2005) Comparison of Extrapulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases: Factors Influencing the Site of Reactivation. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9, 1220-1223.
[18] Sharma, S.K. and Mohan, A. (2012) Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 136, 1129- 1166.
[19] Ogboi, S.J., Idris, S.H., Olayinka, A.T. and Ilyas, J. (2010) Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Patients Presenting with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Primary Health Centre, Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis, 1, 11-14.
[20] Hamid, S., Syed, A.H. and Ali, I. (2012) Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Sputum Positivity Rates for Tuberculosis in Patients with Cough in Srinagar Hospital, India. Pacific Journal of Medical Sciences, 9, 47-52.
[21] Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) HIV/AIDS Statistics.
[22] World Health Organisation (WHO) HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet.
[23] Marlink, R.G. and Kotin, A.G. (2004) Global AIDS Crisis: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO Inc., Santa Barbara, 54.
[24] Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria (2012) 2010 National HIV Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey. Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja.
[25] Obidoa, C.A. and Cromley, R.G. (2012) A Geographical Analysis of HIV/AIDS Infection in Nigeria, 1991-2001. Jour- nal of Social, Behavioural and Health Sciences, 6, 13-29.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.