Quality Control of Selected Antimalarials Sold in the Illicit Market: An Investigation Conducted in Porto-Novo City (Republic of Benin)
Farid Baba-Moussa1,2, Jacob Bonou1,2, Hélène Ahouandjinou1,2, Tamègnon Victorien Dougnon3, Lisette Kpavode1, Nawal Raimi1, Aurore Ogouyemi-Hounto4, Idrissou Abdoulaye5, Fatiou Toukourou2, Frédéric Loko3, Dorothée Kindé-Gazard4, Flore Gangbo6, Lamine Baba-Moussa7*
1National laboratory Control of Quality of Medicines and Edible Medical, Ministry of Health, Cotonou, Benin.
2Laboratory of Microbiology and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Institute of Applied Biomedical Sciences, Champ de Foire, Cotonou, Benin.
3Research Laboratory in Applied Biology, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.
4Parasitology and Mycology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.
5Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, CNHU-HKM, Cotonou, Benin.
6Cytogenetics and Human Biology Laboratory, ISBA-Champ de Foire, Cotonou, Benin.
7Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.
DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.610067   PDF   HTML   XML   4,373 Downloads   4,896 Views   Citations


Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by the bite of female Anopheles mosquito and particularly affects the tropical areas of the world. According to national statistics it is the leading cause of consultations and hospitalizations. Nowadays, despite the surveillance systems for efficient malaria control and access to generic drugs, Benin is witnessing an increased development of illicit drug markets with a large part of the population going towards such markets. However, this is not without adverse impact on the health of individuals, as well as, the economic status of the country. Therefore, the situation needs to be seriously considered by policy makers at various levels, health professionals but also the entire international community in order to thwart this scourge.Regarding the aforementioned situation, the current study was undertaken aiming to perform a quality control of selected antimalarial drugs of the illegal market in Porto-Novo city. Therefore, 40 antimalarial batches were randomly collected in the illicit drug market and submitted to analytical tests such as: macroscopic examination (a visual and critical examination); mass uniformity test; disintegration test; identification test and active ingredients’ content measurement. At the end of the study, the percentages of non-compliance is 97.5%, 5%, 15% and 27.5%, respectively for the content uniformity tests, disintegration, identification and assay. Over-all, 42.5% of noncompliance was recorded. The findings of this study prove that street vended drugs offer no guarantee of good quality and pose a threat to the health of populations. Also, the rate of non-compliance denotes a flaw in the security of the drug distribution system.

Share and Cite:

Baba-Moussa, F. , Bonou, J. , Ahouandjinou, H. , Dougnon, T. , Kpavode, L. , Raimi, N. , Ogouyemi-Hounto, A. , Abdoulaye, I. , Toukourou, F. , Loko, F. , Kindé-Gazard, D. , Gangbo, F. and Baba-Moussa, L. (2015) Quality Control of Selected Antimalarials Sold in the Illicit Market: An Investigation Conducted in Porto-Novo City (Republic of Benin). Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 6, 637-644. doi: 10.4236/abb.2015.610067.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO (1994) World Malaria Situation in 1994. Part I. Population at Risk. The Weekly Epidemiological Record, 72, 264-274.
[2] WHO (1998) Checklist: Malaria, No. 94. (In French)
[3] WHO (1997) Report on World Health: Life in the 21st Century—A Prospect for All. (In French)
[4] NMCP/MSP (2005) National Policy against Malaria and Implementation of the Strategic Framework. Cotonou, 50 p.
[5] Ministry of Health (2008) Statistical Yearbook of Health. Cotonou, Edition, 242 p. (In French)
[6] WHO (2010) Tests, Methods and Quality Standards for Substances, Excipients and Pharmaceutical Preparations. Geneva, (4): 362 p.
[7] Bagozzi, D. (2004) WHO Update on substandard and counterfeit medicines. World Health Organization, 1-8. (French).
[8] DPM/MSP (2007) Collection of Legislative and Regulatory Texts of Benin Pharmaceuticals Subsector. 3rd Edition, Cotonou, 239 p. (In French)
[9] Akole, C. (2010) The Fight against Counterfeit Drugs: Quality Control of Drugs Pilot Study of Benin Illicit Market. Pharmacy Doctoral Thesis, Faculty Pharmacy/FSS/C.
[10] International Pharmacopoeia (1994). 3rd Edition.
[11] American Pharmacopoeia. (2000). 24th Edition NF19.
[12] European Pharmacopoeia (2005). 5th Edition, Volume 1.
[13] American Pharmacopoeia (2011) 34th NF29 otonou , No. 058, 85. (In French)
[14] Baba-Moussa, F. (2005) Personal Communication: Sub Regional Consultation of National Quality Control Laboratories. (In French)
[15] Pradeau, D. (1992) Analysis Practice of Medicine. International Medical Publishing, 1066 p. (In French)
[16] Fonteneau, J.M., Orecchioni, A. and Pain, J. (1999) Galenics, Pharmaceutical Operations, Concept of Drug-Dosage, 209 p. (In French)
[17] Legris, C. (2005) The Detection of Counterfeit Drugs through Investigation of Their Authenticity. Pilot Study on the Illicit Drug Market in Ivory Coast. PhD in Pharmacy, Nancy I., 98 p. (In French)
[18] Diallo, S., Maike, T. and Coulibaly, B. (2008) Substandard Anti-Malarial Drugs in Burkina-Faso. Malaria Journal, 7, 95. (In French)
[19] Shakoor, O., Taylor, R.B. and Behrens, R.H. (1997) Assessment of the Incidence of Substandard Drugs in Developing Countries. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2, 839-845.
[20] Basco, L. (2004) Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Cameroun. Quality of Antimalaria Drugs Used for Self-Medication. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 70, 245-248.
[21] Adognibo, I. (2008) Quality Control of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Health Facilities in Benin. PhD in Pharmacy, Pharmacy UFR/FSS/Cotonou, No. 031, 92. (In French)
[22] Koffi, L., Konan-Macy, M. and Yebouet, B. (1999) The Acute Poisoning in Pediatrics at the University Hospital of Yopougon, Ivory Coast. Bulletin of the Exotic Pathology Society, 2, 114-117. (In French)
[23] Blazy, A. (2002) Unused Medicines and Humanitarian Aid: Evolution and Current Situation. Pharmacy Doctoral Thesis, Lyon. (In French)

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.