Investigating Factors of Slope Failure for Different Landsliding Sites in Murree Area, Using Geomatics Techniques


Throughout the mountainous part of Pakistan, Murree is considered to host the worst slide affected areas. Landslide risk assessment, mapping and analysis is a labour intensive and time consuming work by using conventional field based methods. In this study Geomatics techniques have been applied on digital data such as satellite image and DEM, to investigate some possible causes of slope failure in selected landslide risk zones. The Remote sensing technology and GIS capabilities have been implemented using Landsat TM (30 m) multispectral data and Aster DEM (30 m). Satellite image and digital elevation model have been used to generate rock type map, aspect map, streams order map and slope map. The possible factors of slope failure for different zones of land sliding have been predicted by integrating information from all maps. It has been found that major causes of slope failure have been addressed, also it has been noted that water is the most dominant factor to cause land sliding in Murree area. Results are available for supporting hazard studies, disaster management and future development plans.

Share and Cite:

Mustafa, Z. , Ahmad, S. , Luqman, M. , Ahmad, U. , Khan, S. , Nawaz, M. and Javed, A. (2015) Investigating Factors of Slope Failure for Different Landsliding Sites in Murree Area, Using Geomatics Techniques. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 3, 39-45. doi: 10.4236/gep.2015.38004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Rehman, A.U., Khan, A.N. and Collins, A.E. (2010) Causes and Extent of Environmental Impacts of Landslides Hazards in the Himalayan Region: A Case Study of Murree, Pakistan. Springer Science, 57, 413-434.
[2] Khan, A.N. (2000) Landslide Hazard and Policy Response in Pakistan: A Case Study of Murree, Pakistan. Science Vision, 6, 35-48.
[3] Choubey, V.D. and Litoria, P.K. (1990) Terrain Classification and Land Hazard Mapping in Kalsi-Chakrata Area (Garhwal Himalaya), India. ITC Journal, 1, 65-68.
[4] Gupta, R.P. and Joshi, B.C. (1990) Landslide Hazard Zonation Using the GIS Approach—A Case Study from the Ramganga Catchment, Himalayas. Engineering Geology, 28, 119-131.
[5] Pachauri, A.K. and Pant, M. (1992) Landslide Hazard Mapping Based on Geological Attributes. Engineering Geology, 32, 81-100.
[6] Soeters, R. and van Westen, C.J. (1996) Slope Instability Recognition Analysis and Zonation. In: Turner K.T. and Schuster, R.L., Eds., Landslides: Investigation and Mitigation, Special Report No. 247, Transportation Research Board National Research Council, Washington DC, 129-177.
[7] Van Westen, C.J., Rengers, N., Terlien, M.T.J. and Soeters, R. (1997) Prediction of the Occurrence of Slope Instability Phenomena through GIS Based Hazard Zonation. Geologische Rundschau, 86, 404-414.
[8] Aleotti, P. and Chowdhury, R. (1999) Landslide Hazard Assessment: Summary Review and New Perspectives. Bulletins of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 58, 21-44.
[9] Van Westen, C.J. (2000) The Modelling of Landslide Hazards Using GIS. Geophysics, 21, 241-255.
[10] Dai, F.C. and Lee, C.F. (2002) Landslide Characteristics and Slope Instability Modelling Using GIS, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology, 42, 213-238.
[11] Lin, M.L. and Tung, C.C. (2003) A GIS-Based Potential Analysis of the Landslides Induced by the Chi-Chi Earthquake. Engineering Geology, 71, 63-77.
[12] Mathew, J., Jha, V.K. and Rawat, G.S. (2007) Weights of Evidence Modelling for Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping in Part of Bhagirathi Valley, Uttarakhand. Current Science, 92, 628-638.
[13] Sharma, M. and Kumar, R. (2008) GIS-Based Landslide Hazard Zonation: A Case Study from the Parwanoo Area, Lesser and Outer Himalaya, H.P., India. Bulletins of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 67, 129-137.
[14] Chauhan, S., Sharma, M. and Arora, M.K. (2010) Landslide Susceptibility Zonation of the Chamoli Region, Garhwal Himalayas, Using Logistic Regression Model. Landslides, 7, 411-423.
[15] Chandel, V.B.S., Brar, K.K. and Chauhan, Y. (2011) RS & GIS Based Landslide Hazard Zonation of Mountainous Terrains, A Study from Middle Himalayan Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2, 121-132.
[16] Lucchesi, S., Giardino, M. and Perotti, L. (2012) Applications of High-Resolution Images and DTMs for Detailed Geomorphological Analysis of Mountain and Plain Areas of NW Italy. European Journal of Remote Sensing, 46, 216-233.
[17] Slaymaker, O. (2001) The Role of Remote Sensing in Geomorphology and Terrain Analysis in the Canadian Cordillera. Journal of Applied Geosciences, 3, 11-17.
[18] Ali, Z. and Saeed, A. (2012) Geotechnical Studies of Dewal Landslide along Murree-Muzzafarabad Road, Pakistan. B.S. Thesis, Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
[19] Khan, A.N., Jalloh, S. and Moughtin, C. (1994) Towards an Appraisal of Landslide Hazard Reduction Programme in Murree, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Geography, 4, 15-30.
[20] Ishfaq, M. (1999) Application of GIS and RS to Slope Instability Problems (Landsliding). Northeastern Murree, NWFP, Pakistan.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.