Review: Can Toxic Substances Initiate Psychotic Behavior? Part II. Organophosphate (OP) Substances with Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Activity


This article is an extension of a discussion started in the first part of a series of review articles, entitled “Can Toxic Substances Initiate Psychotic Behavior? Part I. Antimalarial Drugs” in (Open Journal of Preventive Medicine). In the present manuscript, the environmental, health, reproduction (fecundity), social, and juridical problems, together with the medical and ethical aspects of the use of organophosphate substances, will be discussed. This article is based mainly on the results of experiments conducted during the period of 2004–2014. The results described in the article entitled “High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Equipped with a Neurophysiological Detector (NPD) as a Tool for Studying Olfactory System Intoxication by the Organophosphate (OP) Pesticide Diazinon and the Influence of OP Pesticides on Reproduction” (International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography) will be discussed in connection to human disability (invalidation) caused by OPs. The results showed that even a short-time, sub-lethal exposure to the anti-acetylcholinesterase enzyme OPs yields altered neural signaling. These perverse nervous signals can change the basic information that is transmitted to the brain. This information regarding the external environment surrounding situation is vital for living organisms. The exposure of organisms to OPs can have a lifelong impact on the nervous system and be a source of adverse psychotic reactions, even after a single exposure. This article stresses the need for a moratorium on (or, even better, the prohibition of) the use of OPs in agricultural and veterinary practices as pesticides, and the recognition of the use of OPs against the civilian population as chemicals to control protests and demonstrations (as protesto- and demonstrationocides) as a criminal act.

Share and Cite:

Brondz, I. (2015) Review: Can Toxic Substances Initiate Psychotic Behavior? Part II. Organophosphate (OP) Substances with Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Activity. Voice of the Publisher, 1, 47-65. doi: 10.4236/vp.2015.13008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Brondz, I. (2014) Review: Can Toxic Substances Initiate Psychotic Behavior? Part I. Antimalarial Drugs. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 561-572.
[2] Brondz, I., Hamdani, E.H. and Doving, K.B. (2003) The Fish Olfactory System Used as an In-Line HPLC Neurophysiologic Detector NPD. 3rd International Symposium on Separation in BioSciences SBS 2003: A 100 Years of Chromatography, Moscow, 13-18 May 2003, 95.
[3] Brondz, I., Hamdani, E.H. and Doving, K.B. (2004) Neurophysiologic Detector (NPD)—A Selective and Sensitive Tool in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 800, 41-47.
[4] Brondz, I., Hamdani, E.H. and Doving, K.B. (2004) International Scientific-Technical Conference Sensors Electronics and Microsystems Technology (SEMST-1), Odessa, 1-5 June 2004, Plenum Lecture, Abstract, 17.
[5] Brondz, I., Hamdani, E.H. and Doving, K.B. (2004) Isolation of a Fraction Inducing Activity in Neurones of “alarm Center” in the Olfactory Bulb of the Crucian carp, Carassius carassius L. The European Chemoreception Research Organization ECRO 2004 Congress, Dijon, 12-15 September 2004, Abstract, 3.
[6] Brondz, I., Karaliova, L. and Ekeberg, D. (2006) Biosensors as Electronic Compounds for Detector in the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Electronic Components and Systems, 3, 25-27. (In Russian)
[7] Brondz, I. (2015) High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) Equipped with a Neurophysiological Detector (NPD) as a Tool for Studying Olfactory System Intoxication by the Organophosphate (OP) Pesticide Diazinon and the Influence of OP Pesticides on Reproduction. International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography, 3, 14-24.
[8] Brondz, I. and Brondz, A. (2011) Suppression of Immunity by Some Pesticides, Xenobiotics, and Industrial Chemicals. In Vitro Model. Journal of Biophysical Chemistry, 2, 226-232.
[9] von Frisch, K. (1942) übereinen Schreckstoff der Fischhaut und seine biologische Bedeutung. ZeitschriftfürVergleichende Physiologie, 29, 46-145.
[10] Doving, K.B., Nordeng, Gr.H. and Oakley, B. (1974) Single Unit Discrimination of Fish Odours Released by Char (Salmo alpinus L.) Populations. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 47A, 1051-1063.
[11] Petroianu, G.A. (2009) The Synthesis of Phosphor Ethers: Who Was Franz Anton Voegeli? Pharmazie, 64, 269-275.
[12] Benmoyal-Segal, L., Vander, T., Shifman, S., Bryk, B., Ebstein, R., Marcus, E.-L., Stessman, J., Darvasi, A., Herishanu, Y., Friedman, A. and Soreq, H. (2005) Acetylcholinesterase/Paraoxonase Interactions Increase the Risk of Insecticide-Induced Parkinson’s Disease. The FASEB Journal, 19, 452-454.
[13] Quinn, D.M. (1987) Acetylcholinesterase: Enzyme Structure, Reaction Dynamics, and Virtual Transition Stats. Chemical Reviews, 87, 955-979.
[14] Sussman, J.L., Harel, M., Frolow, F., Oefner, C., Goldman, A., Toker, L. and Silman, I. (1991) Atomic Structure of Acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo Californica: A Prototypic Acetylcholine-Binding Protein. Science, 253, 872-879.
[15] Holzgrabe, U. (1993) Struktur der Acetylcholinesterase. Abschied von einem Modell. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung, 133, 1901-1902.
[16] Gross, G.W. and Kreutzberg, G.W. (1978) Rapid Axoplasmic Transport in the Olfactory Nerve of the Pike: I. Basic Transport Parameters for Proteins and Amino Acids. Brain Research, 139, 65-76.
[17] Yang, R.S.H., Dauterman, W.C. and Hodgson, E. (1969) Enzymatic Degradation of Diazinon by Rat Liver Microsomes. Life Sciences, 8, 667-672.
[18] Yang, R.S.H., Hodgson, E. and Dauterman, W.C. (1971) Metabolism in Vitro of Diazinon and Diazoxon in Rat Liver. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 19, 10-13.
[19] Yang, R.S.H., Hodgson, E. and Dauterman, W.C. (1971) Metabolism in Vitro of Diazinon and Diazoxon in Susceptible and Resistant Houseflies. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 19, 14-19.
[20] Janes, N.F., Machin, A.F., Quick, M.P., Rogers, H., Munday, D.E. and Cross, A.J. (1973) Toxic Metabolites of Diazinon in Sheep. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 21, 121-124.
[21] Machin, A.F., Quick, M.P., Rogers, H. and Janes, N.F. (1972) An Isomer of Hydroxydiazinon Formed by Metabolism in Sheep. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 7, 270-272.
[22] Iverson, F., Grant, D.L. and Lacroix, J. (1975) Diazinon Metabolism in the Dog. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 13, 611-618.
[23] Miyata, T. and Matsumura, F. (1972) Organophosphate Degrading Enzymes in the Crude Supernatant Fraction from the Rat Liver. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 20, 30-32.
[24] Lichtenstein, E.P., Fuhremann, T.W., Hochberg, A.A., Zahlten, R.N. and Stratman, F.W. (1973) Metabolism of 14C-Parathion and 14C-Paraoxon with Fractions and Subfractions of Rat Liver Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 21, 416-424.
[25] Menn, J.J. (1978) Comparative Aspects of Pesticide Metabolism in Plants and Animals. Environmental Health Perspectives, 27, 113-124.
[26] Mihara, K. and Miyamoto, J. (1974) Metabolism of Salithion (2-Methoxy-4H-l,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-sulfide) in Rats and Plants. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 38, 1913-1924.
[27] Mikami, N., Ohkawa, H. and Miyamoto, J. (1976) Photodecomposition of Surecide (O-Ethyl O-4-Cyanophenyl Phenylphophonothioate) and Cyanox (O,O-Dimethyl O-4-Cyanophenyl Phosphorothioate). Journal of Pesticide Science, 1, 273-281.
[28] Edwards, D. (2006) Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Malathion. US Environmental Protection Agency—Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances EPA 738-R-06-030.
[29] Schwartz, J.H. (1979) Axonal Transport: Components, Mechanisms, and Specificity. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2, 467-504.
[30] Soliman, S.A., Curley, A., Farmer, J. and Novak, R. (1986) In Vivo Inhibition of Chicken Brain Acetylcholinesterase and Neurotoxic Esterase in Relation to the Delayed Neurotoxicity of Leptophos and Cyanofenphos. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, 7, 211-224.
[31] Soliman, S.A. and Farmer, J.D. (1984) Delayed Neuropathy in Adult Peking Ducks Induced by Some Organophosphorus Esters. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 14, 789-801.
[32] El-Sebae, A.H., Soliman, S.A., Ahmed, N.S. and Curley, A. (1981) Biochemical Interaction of Six OP Delayed Neurotoxicants with Several Neurotargets. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 16, 465-474.
[33] Abou-Donia, M.B. (2003) Organophosphorus Ester-Induced Chronic Neurotoxicity. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 58, 484-497.
[34] Behan, P.O. and Haniffah, B.A.G. (1994) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Possible Delayed Hazard of Pesticide Exposure. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 18, S54.
[35] Briggs, N.C. and Levine, P.H. (1994) A Comparative Review of Systemic and Neurological Symptomatology in 12 Outbreaks Collectively Described as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Epidemic Neuromyasthenia, and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 18, S32-S42.
[36] Racciatti, D., Vecchiet, J., Ceccomancini, A., Ricci, F. and Pizzigallo, E. (2001) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Following a Toxic Exposure. The Science of the Total Environment, 270, 27-31.
[37] Miranda-Contreras, L., Gómez-Perez, R., Rojas, G., Cruz, I., Berrueta, L., Salmen, S., Colmenares, M., Barreto, S., Balza, A., Zavala, L., Morales, Y., Molina, Y., Valeri, L., Contreras, C.A. and Osuna, J.A. (2013) Occupational Exposure to Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides Affects Sperm Chromatin Integrity and Reproductive Hormone Levels among Venezuelan Farm Workers. Journal of Occupational Health, 55, 195-203.
[38] Poongothai, S., Ravikrishnan, R. and Murthy, P. (2007) Endocrine Disruption and Perspective Human Health Implications: A Review. The Internet Journal of Toxicology, 4.
[39] Karalliedde, L. (1999) Organophosphorus Poisoning and Anaesthesia. Anaesthesia, 54, 1073-1088.
[40] Coyle, P.K., Krupp, L.B., Doscher, C. and Amin, K. (1994) Borrelia burgdorferi Reactivity in Patients with Severe Persistent Fatigue Who Are from a Region in Which Lyme Disease Is Endemic. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 18, S24-S27.
[41] Eyer, P. (1995) Neuropsychopathological Changes by Organophosphorus Compounds—A Review. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 14, 857-864.
[42] Bazylewicz-Walczak, B., Majczakowa, W. and Szymczak, M. (1999) Behavioral Effects of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in Female Greenhouse Planting Workers. Neuro Toxicology, 20, 819-826.
[43] Frawley, J.P., Fuyat, H.N., Hagan, E.C., Blake, J.R. and Fitzhugh, O.G. (1957) Marked Potentiation in Mammalian Toxicity from Simultaneous Administration of Two Anticholinesterase Compounds. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 121, 96-106.
[44] Karczmar, A. (1998) Invited Review Anticholinesterases: Dramatic Aspects of Their Use and Misuse. Neurochemistry International, 32, 401-411.
[45] Garbellini, G.S., Uliana, C.V. and Yamanaka, H. (2013) Interaction of Organophosphorus Pesticides with DNA Nucleotides on a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 24, 1942-1949.
[46] Kermen, F., Franco, L.M., Wyatt, C. and Yaksi, E. (2013) Neural Circuits Mediating Olfactory-Driven Behavior in Fish. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 7.
[47] Hara, T.J. and Zielinski, B. (2007) Olfaction. In: Sensory Systems Neuroscience, Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, 1-43.
[48] Sheldon, R.E. (1912) The Olfactory Tracts and Centers in Teleosts. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 22, 177-339.
[49] Finger, T.E. (1975) The Distribution of the Olfactory Tracts in the Bullhead Catfish, Ictalurus nebulosus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 161, 125-141.
[50] Bass, A.H. (1981) Telencephalic Efferents in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Projections to the Olfactory Bulb and Optic Tectum. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 19, 1-16.
[51] von Bartheld, C.S., Meyer, D.L., Fiebig, E. and Ebbesson, S.O. (1984) Central Connections of the Olfactory Bulb in the Goldfish, Carassius auratus. Cell and Tissue Research, 238, 475-487.
[52] Hamdani, E.H., Stabell, O.B., Alexander, G. and Doving, K.B. (2000) Alarm Reaction in the Crucian Carp Is Mediated by the Medial Bundle of the Medial Olfactory Tract. Chemical Senses, 25, 103-109.
[53] Hamdani, E.H., Lastein, S., Gregersen, F. and Doving, K.B. (2008) Seasonal Variations in Olfactory Sensory Neurons-Fish Sensitivity to Sex Pheromones Explained? Chemical Senses, 33, 119-123.
[54] Browne, J.V. (2008) Chemosensory Development in the Fetus and Newborn. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews, 8, 180-186.
[55] Fishelson, L., Golani, D., Galil, B. and Goren, M. (2010) Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei: Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) with Additional Remarks on the Brain. International Journal of Zoology, 2010, Article ID: 807913.
[56] Kleerekoper, H. (1969) Olfaction in Fishes. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
[57] Hara, T.J. (1975) Olfaction in Fish. Progress in Neurobiology, 5, 271-335.
[58] Hara, T.J. (1994) Olfaction and Gustation in Fish: An Overview. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 152, 207-217.
[59] Hara, T.J. (2005) Olfactory Responses to Amino Acids in Rainbow Trout: Revisited. In: Reutter, K. and Kapoor, B.G. Eds., Fish Chemosenses, Science Publishers, Enfield, 32-64.
[60] Atema, J. (1983) Chemical Senses, Chemical Signals, and Feeding Behavior in Fishes. In: Bardach, J.E., Magnuson, J.J., May, R.C. and Reinhart, J.M., Eds., Fish Behavior and Its Use in the Capture and Culture of Fishes (ICLARMConference 5), International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, 57-101.
[61] Hara, T.J. and Zielinski, B.S. (1989) Structural and Functional Development of the Olfactory Organ in Teleosts. Transaction of the American Fishery Society, 118, 183-194.<0183:SAFDOT>2.3.CO;2
[62] von Frisch, K. (1938) Zur Psychologie des Fish-Schwarmes. Naturwissenschaften, 26, 601-606.
[63] Johnson, K.M. (1997) Human Sexual Motivation. California State University, Northridge.
[64] Kohl, J.V., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B. and Grammer, K. (2001) Human Pheromones: Integrating Neuroendocrinology and Ethology. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 22, 309-321.
[65] Taylor, G.T. (1980) Sex Pheromones and Aggressive Behavior in Male Rats. Animal Learning & Behavior, 8, 485-490.
[66] Gower, D.B., Nixon, A., Jackman, P.J.H. and Mallet, A.I. (1986) Transformation of Steroids by Axillary Coryneform Bacteria. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 8, 149-158.
[67] Troccaz, M. (2009) The Biosynthetic Pathway of Sulfur-Containing Molecules in Human Axillary Malodor: From Precursors to Odorous Volatiles. Thèse de doctorat, Univ. Genève, No. Sc. 4102.
[68] Holman, L. (2010) Queen Pheromones: The Chemical Crown Governing Insect Social Life. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 3, 558-560.
[69] Wilson, E.O. and Regnier Jr., F.E. (1971) The Evolution of the Alarm-Defense System in the Formicine Ants. The American Naturalist, 105, 279-289.
[70] Holman, L., Jorgensen, C.G., Nielsen, J. and d’Ettorre, P. (2010) Identification of an Ant Queen Pheromone Regulating Worker Sterility. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Proceedings B: Biological, 277, 3793-3800.
[71] Smith, A.A., Holldober, B. and Liebig, J. (2009) Cuticular Hydrocarbons Reliably Identify Cheaters and Allow Enforcement of Altruism in a Social Insect. Current Biology, 19, 78-81.
[72] Peeters, C. and Liebig, J. (2009) Fertility Signaling as a General Mechanism of Regulating Reproductive Division of Labor in Ants. In: Gadau, J. and Fewell, J., Eds., Organization of Insect Societies: From Genome to Socio-Complexity, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 220-242.
[73] Dapporto, L., Romana Dani, F. and Turillazzi, S. (2007) Social Dominance Molds Cuticular and Egg Chemical Blends in a Paper Wasp. Current Biology, 17, 504-505.
[74] Amsalem, E., Twele, R., Francke, W. and Hefetz, A. (2009) Reproductive Competition in the Bumble-Bee Bombus terrestris: Do Workers Advertise Sterility? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Proceedings B: Biological, 276, 1295-1304.
[75] Robinson, G.E., Winston, M.L., Huang, Z. and Pankiw, T. (1998) Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Influences Worker Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Foraging Ontogeny and Juvenile Hormone Titers. Journal of Insect Physiology, 44, 685-692.
[76] Beggs, K.T., Glendining, K.A., Marechal, N.M., Vergoz, V., Nakamura, I., Slessor, K.N. and Mercer, A.R. (2007) Queen Pheromone Modulates Brain Dopamine Function in Worker Honey Bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 2460-2464.
[77] Vergoz, V., Schreurs, H.A. and Mercer, A.R. (2007) Queen Pheromone Blocks Aversive Learning in Young Worker Bees. Science, 317, 384-386.
[78] Novotny, M.V. (2003) Pheromones, Binding Proteins and Receptor Responses in Rodents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 31, 117-122.
[79] Korb, J., Weil, T., Hoffman, K., Foster, K.R. and Rehli, M. (2009) A Gene Necessary for Reproductive Suppression in Termites. Science, 324, 758.
[80] Jarosch, A., Stole, E., Crewe, R. and Moritz, R.F.A. (2011) Alternative Splicing of a Single Transcription Factor Drives Selfish Reproductive Behavior in Honeybee Workers (Apis mellifera). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 15282-15287.
[81] Van Zweden, J.S., Bonckaert, W., Wenseleers, T. and d’Ettorre, P. (2013) Queen Signaling in Social Wasps. Evolution, 68, 976-986.
[82] Koenig, W.D., Mumme, R.L., Stanback, T. and Pitelka, F.A. (1995) Patterns and Consequences of Egg Destruction among Joint-Nesting Acorn Woodpeckers. Animal Behaviour, 50, 607-621.
[83] Cant, M.A. (2000) Social Control of Reproduction in Banded Mongooses. Animal Behavior, 59, 147-158.
[84] Spiering, P.A., Somers, M.J., Maldonado, J.E., Wildt, D.E. and Gunter, M.S. (2010) Reproductive Sharing and Proximate Factors Mediating Cooperative Breeding in the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus). Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology, 64, 583-592.
[85] Beehner, J.C. and Lu, A. (2013) Reproductive Suppression in Female Primates: A Review. Evolutionary Anthropology, 22, 226-238.
[86] Bowman, L., Dilley, S.R. and Keverne, E.B. (1978) Suppression of Oestrogen-Induced LH Surges by Social Subordination in Talapoin Monkeys. Nature, 275, 56-58.
[87] Kirk-Smith, M., Booth, D.A., Carroll, D. and Davies, P. (1978) Human Social Attitudes Affected by Androstenol. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior, 3, 379-384.
[88] Filsinger, E.E., Braun, J.J. and Monte, W.C. (1990) Sex Differences in Response to the Odor of Alpha Androstenone. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 216-218.
[89] Patocka, J. (2010) Kdo Syntetizoval První Organofosforovy Inhibitor Acetylcholinesterasy? Vojenske Zdravotnicke Listy, 123, 126-128.
[90] Petroianu, G.A. (2010) Toxicity of Phosphor Esters: Willy Lange (1900-1976) and Gerda von Krueger (1907-after 1970). Pharmazie, 65, 776-780.
[91] Fitzgerald, G.J. (2008) Chemical Warfare and Medical Response during World War I. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 611-625.
[92] The Nuremberg Trials.
[93] The International Military Tribunal for Germany. Contents of the Nuremberg Trials Collection.
[94] The Allies and the Use of Gas in WWII.
[95] Kozakiewicz, P. (2014) Editorials Moscow Theater Crisis: Unknown Chemical Agent Revisited. CBRNePortal.
[96] Hiro, D. (2002) Iraq and Poison Gas. The Nation.
[97] Kennedy, K. (2012) Study: Wind Blew Deadly Gas to US Troops in Gulf War. USA TODAY.
[98] Koeppel, B. (2015) US Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops. Newsweek.
[99] Hamdani, E.H. and Doving, K.B. (2003) Sensitivity and Selectivity of Neurons in the Medial Region of the Olfactory Bulb to Skin Extract from Conspecifics in Crucian Carp, Carassius carassius. Chemical Senses, 28, 181-189.
[100] Lastein, S., Hamdani, E.H. and Doving, K.B. (2008) Single Unit Responses to Skin Odorants from Conspecifics and Heterospecifics in the Olfactory Bulb of Crucian Carp Carassius carassius. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 211, 3529-3535.
[101] Lastein, S. (2008) Olfactory Processing of Sex and Alarm Cues in the Crucian Carp Carassius carassius. PhD Thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo.
[102] Dittman, A.H. and Quinn, T.P. (1996) Homing in Pacific Salmon: Mechanisms and Ecological Basis. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 83-91.
[103] Brown, G.E. and Smith, R.J.F. (1997) Conspecific Skin Extracts Elicit Antipredator Responses in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 75, 1916-1922.
[104] Heczko, E.J. and Seghers, B.H. (1981) Effects of Alarm Substance on Schooling in the Common Shiner (Notropis cornutus, Cyprinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 6, 25-29.
[105] Scholz, N.L., Truelove, N.K., French, B.L., Berejikian, B.A., Quinn, T.P., Casillas, E. and Collier, T.K. (2000) Diazinon Disrupts Antipredator and Homing Behaviors in Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 1911-1918.
[106] Davis, R.E., Reynolds, R.C. and Ricks, A. (1978) Suppression Behavior Increased by Telencephalic Lesions in the Teleost, Macropodus opercularis. Behavioral Biology, 24, 32-48.
[107] Sandahl, J.F., Baldwin, D.H., Jenkins, J.J. and Scholz, N.L. (2004) Odor-Evoked Field Potentials as Indicators of Sublethal Neurotoxicity in Juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Exposed to Copper, Chlorpyrifos, or Esfenvalerate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61, 404-413.
[108] Sharifian, I., Rastiannasab, A. and Gandomkar, H. (2015) Effects of Diazinon on Some Immunological Components of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio Juveniles. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 24, 1339-1341.
[109] Buric, M., Kouba, A., Machova, J., Mahovska, I. and Kozak, P. (2013) Toxicity of the Organophosphate Pesticide Diazinon to Crayfish of Differing Age. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10, 607-610.
[110] Moore, D.R.J. and Teed, R.S. (2013) Risks of Carbamate and Organophosphate Pesticide Mixtures to Salmon in the Pacific Northwest. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 9, 70-78.
[111] Huang, B. (2015) Chronic Behavioral and Cognitive Deficits in a Rat Survival Model of Organophosphate Toxicity. VCU Theses and Dissertations, VCU University Archives Paper 3696.
[112] Overstreet, D.H. (2000) Organophosphate Pesticides, Cholinergic Function and Cognitive Performance in Advanced Age. Neurotoxicology, 21, 75-81.
[113] Richardson, R.J., Worden, R.M., Wijeyesakere, S.J., Hein, N.D., Fink, J.K. and Makhaeva, G.F. (2015) Chapter 63, Neuropathy Target Esterase as a Biomarkers and Biosensor of Delayed Neuropathic Agents. In: Gupta, R.C., Ed., Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition, Academic Press, London, San Diego, Waltham and Oxford, 935-952.
[114] Reneman, L., Schagen, S.B., Mulder, M., Mutsaerts, H.J., Hageman, G. and de Ruiter, M.B. (2015) Cognitive Impairment and Associated Loss in Brain White Microstructure in Aircrew Members Exposed to Engine Oil Fumes. Brain Imaging and Behavior, Published Online.
[115] Mackenzie, S.R., Clark, J., Harrison, V. and Abraham, K. (2007) Cognitive Impairment Following Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Pilot Study. Journal of Occupational Health & Safety-Australia & New Zealand, 23, 133-142.
[116] Mackenzie, S.R., McManus, I.C., Harrison, V. and Mason, O. (2013) Neurobehavioral Problems Following Low-Level Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Systematic and Meta-Analytic Review. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 43, 21-44.
[117] Geneva Protocol (1925) Protocol Entered into Force on 8 February 1928.
[118] UN Resolution 687.
[119] Aspmo, R., Eklo, O.M., Lode, O., Brondz, I., Johnsen, A.M. and Olsen, D. (1991) Avrenning av plantevernmidler fra jordbruksarealer. In: Plantevernmidelforurensning til jord og vann, Underveis-seminar Nr. 2, 100-107.
[120] Lode, O., Eklo, O.M., Brondz, I. and Johnsen, A.M. (1991) Vertikal transport av plantevernmiddel i jord i feltforsok. In: Plantevernmidelforurensning til jord og vann, Underveis-seminar Nr. 2, 109-115.
[121] Eklo, O.M., Riise, G., Brondz, I., Lode, O., Salbo, B., Pettersen, M.N. and Johnsen, A.M. (1991) Mobilitet og nedbrytning av DIKLORPROP i soyleforsok. In: Plantevernmidelforurensning til jord og vann, Underveis-seminar Nr. 2, 116-126.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.