Development of Safflower Subjected to Nitrogen Rates in Cerrado Soil


In a context in which the nitrogen fertilizer recommendations in the literature for safflower crop show up conflicting, it was aimed by the present study to evaluate the development of safflower when subjected to nitrogen rates in an Oxisol collected under Cerrado vegetation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots filled with Oxisol collected in area under Cerrado vegetation in the layer from 0.0 to 0.20 m. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic pot of 5 dm-3, the experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of six nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mg°dm-3) and six repetitions. It were assessed plant height, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, number of heads, dry mass of shoot and dry mass of root. The results were submitted to variance analysis and, when significant, to regression analysis, both at 5% probability by SISVAR program. Nitrogen rates positively influence the development of safflower, and the one that best promotes this development is between 160 and 190 mg°dm-3.

Share and Cite:

Bonfim-Silva, E. , Sasso Paludo, J. , Rodrigues Sousa, J. , Freitas Sousa, H. and Araújo da Silva, T. (2015) Development of Safflower Subjected to Nitrogen Rates in Cerrado Soil. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 2136-2143. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.613215.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ekin, Z. (2005) Resurgence of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Utilization: A Global View. Journal of Agronomy, 4, 83-87.
[2] Kim, H.-W., Hwang, K.-E., Song, D.-H., Kim, Y.-J., Ham, Y.-K., Lim, Y.-B., Jeong, T.J., Choi, Y.-S. and Kim, C.-J. (2015) Wheat Fiber Colored with a Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Red Pigment as a Natural Colorant and Antioxidant in COOKED sausages. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 64, 350-355.
[3] Torabi, B., Adibniya, M. and Rahimi, A. (2015) Seedling Emergence Response to Temperature in Safflower: Measurements and Modeling. International Journal of Plant Production, 9, 393-412.
[4] Wang, Y., Tang, C.Y. and Zhang, H. (2015) Hepatoprotective Effects of Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside from Carthamus tinctorius L. on CCl4-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Mice. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 23, 310-317.
[5] Giayetto, O., Fernandez, E.M., Asnal, W.E., Cerioni, G.A. and Cholaky, L. (1999) Comportamiento de cultivares de cártamo (Carthamus tinctorius L.) enlaregion de Rio Cuarto. Investigación Agraria: Producción y protecciónvegetales, 14, 203-215.
[6] Lovelli, S., Perniola, M., Ferrara, A. and Di Tommaso, T. (2007) Yield Response Factor to Water (Ky) and Water Use Efficiency of Carthamus tinctorius L. and Solanum melongena L. Agricultural Water Management, 92, 73-80.
[7] Kizil, S., Çakmak, Ö., Kirici, S. and Inan, M. (2008) A Comprehensive Study on Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Semi-Arid Conditions. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 22, 947-953.
[8] Dordas, C.A. and Sioulas C. (2009) Dry Matter and Nitrogen Accumulation, Partitioning, and Retranslocation in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization. Field Crops Research, 110, 35-43.
[9] Golzarfar, M., Rad, A.H.S., Delkhosh, B. and Bitarafan, Z. (2011) Changes of Safflower Morphologic Traits in Responseto Nitrogen Rates, Phosphorus Rates and Planting Season. International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology, 1, 84-89.[11-01-10-037].pdf
[10] El-Mohsen, A.A.A. and Mahmoud, G.O. (2013) Modeling the Influence of Nitrogen Rate and Plant Density on Seed Yield, Yield Components and Seed Quality of Safflower. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 3, 336-360.
[11] Mohamed, S.J., Jellings, A.J. and Fuller, M.P. (2013) Positive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Its Interaction with Nitrogen on Safflower Physiology and Growth. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33, 497-505.
[12] de Anicésio, E.C.A., Bonfim-Silva, E.M., da Silva, T.J.A. and Koetz, M. (2015) Dry Mass, Nutrient Concentration and Accumulation in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Influenced by Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizations. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9, 552-560.
[13] Yau. S.-K. and Ryan, J. (2010) Response of Rainfed Safflower to Nitrogen Fertilization under Mediterranean Conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 32, 318-323.
[14] Bonfim-Silva, E.M., Silva, T.J.A., Cabral, E.A., Kroth, B.E. and Rezende, D. (2011) Desenvolvimento Inicial de Gramíneas Submetidas ao Estresse Hídrico. Revista Caatinga, 24, 180-186.
[15] Ferreira, D.F. (2011) Sisvar: Um sistema computacional de estatística. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 35, 1039-1042.
[16] Biscaro, G.A., Machado, J.R., Tosta, M.S., Mendonça, V., Soratto, R.P. and Carvalho, L.A. (2008) Adubação nitrogenada em cobertura no girassol irrigado nas condiçães de Cassilandia-MS. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 32, 1366-1373.
[17] da Silva, C.J. (2013) Caracterização agronômica e divergência genética de acessos de cártamo. 51f. Tese. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Botucatu.
[18] Cruz, J.L., Pelacani, C.R., de Carvalho, J.E.B., da Silva Souza Filho, L.F. and Queiroz, D.C. (2007) Níveis de nitrogênio e a taxa fotossintética do mamoeiro “Golden”. Ciência Rural, 37, 64-71.
[19] Braga, C.L. (2009) Doses de nitrogênio no desenvolvimento de girassol ornamental (Helianthusannuus L.) de vaso. 92f. Dissertação. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Botucatu.
[20] Broge, N.H. and Leblanc, E. (2001) Comparing Prediction Power and Stability of Broadband and Hyperspectral Vegetation Indices for Estimation of Green Leaf Area Index and Canopy Chlorophyll Density. Remote Sensing of Environment, 76, 156-172.
[21] Dordas, C.A. and Sioulas, C. (2008) Safflower Yield, Chlorophyll Content, Photosynthesis, and Water Use Efficiency Response to Nitrogen Fertilization under Rainfed Conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 27, 75-85.
[22] Elfadl, E., Reinbrecht, C., Frick, C. and Claupein, W. (2009) Optimization of Nitrogen Rate and Seed Density for Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Production under Low-Input Farming Conditions in Temperate Climate. Field Crops Research, 114, 2-13.
[23] Dordas, C.A., Lithourgidis, A.S., Matsi, T. and Barbayiannis, N. (2008) Application of Liquid Cattle Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers Affect Dry Matter, Nitrogen Accumulation, and Partitioning in Maize. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 80, 283-296.
[24] Koutroubas, S.D., Papakosta, D.K. and Doitsinis, A. (2008) Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Safflower Hybrids and Open-Pollinated Varieties under Mediterranean Conditions. Field Crops Research, 107, 56-61.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.