Analysis of Bifenthrin Degrading Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Plants Growing at Tannery Solid Waste


Bifenthrin is an insecticide which is used to control insects, mites, and ticks. It poses a solemn en-vironmental threat and health risk to living organisms. It may be bioaccumulated or biomagnified at different trophic levels in the food chain by biota. Microbes are hidden creature of earth’s biodiversity. For isolation of bifenthrin degrading bacteria, rhizospheric soil samples of plants like Pisum sativum, Triticun aestvum, Chenopodium album were taken from tannery solid waste, Kasur, Pakistan. Enrichment culture techniques were used for the isolation of bacterial strains that showed luxurious growth on minimal growth media with bifenthrin dose was selected for biodegradation study. Bacteria were further screened out based on their morphological, biochemical parameters and degradation efficiency. Furthermore the effect of different growth factors like temperature, pH, inoculum concencentration, minimal inhibitory concentration of heavy metals and antibiotics were also studied. Bacterial strains of Xanthomonas and Bacillus sp. were identified as efficient degrading microbes. Maximum bifenthrin utilization were observed at 25°C (pH 7), with 500 μL inoculum of Bacillus sp., while Xanthomonas sp. gave optimm utilization at 30°C (pH 7) at the same inoculum volume of bacteria. The Rf values of Bacillus sp. and Xanthomonas sp. were 0.91 and 0.90 respectively, which indicated their potential to metabolize bifenthrin into nontoxic forms. These strains can be used to clean up the sites polluted with pesticides and tannery wastes when present in rhizosphere of plants.

Share and Cite:

Ahmed, M. , Jabeen, F. , Ali, M. , Ahmad, Z. , Ahmed, F. , Bilal Sarwar, M. , Din, S. , Hassan, M. and Jahan, S. (2015) Analysis of Bifenthrin Degrading Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Plants Growing at Tannery Solid Waste. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 2042-2050. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.613204.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Hougard, J.-M., Duchon, S., Zaim, M. and Guillet, P. (2002) Bifenthrin: A Useful Pyrethroid Insecticide for Treatment of Mosquito Nets. Journal of Medical Entomology, 39, 526-533.
[2] Amweg, E.L., Weston, D.P. and Ureda, N.M. (2005) Use and Toxicity of Pyrethroid Pesticides in the Central Valley, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 966-972.
[3] O’Brien, D.J., Morgan, J.P., Lane, M.F., O’Reilly, P.F. and O’Neill, S.J. (1997) A Novel Dip Formulation of a Synthetic Pyrethroid (SP) for the Control of Blowfly Myiasis of Sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 69, 145-150.
[4] Feo, M.L., Eljarrat, E., Manaca, M.N., Dobaño, C., Barcelo, D., Sunyer, J., Alonso, P.L., Menendez, C. and Grimalt, J.O. (2012) Pyrethroid Use-Malaria Control and Individual Applications by Households for Other Pests and Home Garden Use. Environment international, 38, 67-72.
[5] Zerba, E. (1988) Insecticidal Activity of Pyrethroids on Insects of Medical Importance. Parasitology Today, 4, S3-S7.
[6] Weston, D., Holmes R., You, J. and Lydy, M. (2005) Aquatic Toxicity Due to Residential Use of Pyrethroid Insecticides. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 9778-9784.
[7] Corcellas, C., Feo, M.L., Torres, J.P., Malm, O., Ocampo-Duque, W., Eljarrat, E. and Barceló, D. (2012) Pyrethroids in Human Breast Milk: Occurrence and Nursing Daily Intake Estimation. Environment International, 47, 17-22.
[8] Chaudhry, Q., Blom-Zandstra, M., Gupta, S.K. and Joner, E. (2005) Utilising the Synergy between Plants and Rhizosphere Microorganisms to Enhance Breakdown of Organic Pollutants in the Environment (15 pp). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 12, 34-48.
[9] Shann, J.R. (1995) The Role of Plants and Plant/Microbial Systems in the Reduction of Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 13-15.
[10] Juhnke, M.E., Mathre, D. and Sands, D. (1987) Identification and Characterization of Rhizosphere-Competent Bacteria of Wheat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53, 2793-2799.
[11] Kullman, S.W. and Matsumura, F. (1996) Metabolic Pathways Utilized by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for Degradation of the Cyclodiene Pesticide Endosulfan. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 593-600.
[12] Widada, J., Nojiri, H. and Omori, T. (2002) Recent Developments in Molecular Techniques for Identification and Monitoring of Xenobiotic-Degrading Bacteria and Their Catabolic Genes in Bioremediation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 60, 45-59.
[13] Oi, M. (1999) Time-Dependent Sorption of Imidacloprid in Two Different Soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 327-332.
[14] El-Fantroussi, S. (2000) Enrichment and Molecular Characterization of a Bacterial Culture That Degrades Methoxy-Methyl Urea Herbicides and Their Aniline Derivatives. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 5110-5115.
[15] Grant, R. and Betts, W. (2004) Mineral and Carbon Usage of Two Synthetic Pyrethroid Degrading Bacterial Isolates. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 97, 656-662.
[16] Siddique, T., Okeke, B.C., Arshad, M. and Frankenberger, W.T. (2003) Enrichment and Isolation of Endosulfan-Degrading Microorganisms. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 47-54.
[17] Kumar, K., Devi, S.S., Krishnamurthi, K., Kanade, G.S. and Chakrabarti, T. (2007) Enrichment and Isolation of Endosulfan Degrading and Detoxifying Bacteria. Chemosphere, 68, 317-322.
[18] Gerhardt, G., Murray, R., Wood, W. and Kreig, N. (2005) Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, 1325 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington DC.
[19] Wong, J., Xiang, L., Gu, X. and Zhou, L. (2004) Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge Using FeS2 as an Energy Source. Chemosphere, 55, 101-107.
[20] Murugesan, A., Jeyasanthi, T. and Maheswari, S. (2010) Isolation and Characterization of Cypermethrin Utilizing Bacteria from Brinjal Cultivated Soil. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4, 010-013.
[21] Maloney, S., Maule, A. and Smith, A.R. (1993) Purification and Preliminary Characterization of Permethrinase from a Pyrethroid-Transforming Strain of Bacillus cereus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59, 2007-2013.
[22] Grant, R., Daniell, T. and Betts, W. (2002) Isolation and Identification of Synthetic Pyrethroid-Degrading Bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 92, 534-540.
[23] Zhang, C., Wang, S. and Yan, Y. (2011) Isomerization and Biodegradation of Beta-Cypermethrin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CH7 with Biosurfactant Production. Bioresource Technology, 102, 7139-7146.
[24] Chen, Z.-M. and Wang, Y.-H. (1996) Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Pyrethrin and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Crops, Foods and Environmental Samples. Journal of Chromatography A, 754, 367-395.
[25] Oyetibo, G.O., Ilori, M.O., Adebusoye, S.A., Obayori, O.S. and Amund, O.O. (2010) Bacteria with Dual Resistance to Elevated Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Antibiotics in Nigerian Contaminated Systems. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 168, 305-314.
[26] Cycoń, M., Wójcik, M. and Piotrowska-Seget, Z. (2009) Biodegradation of the Organophosphorus Insecticide Diazinon by Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. and Their Use in Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil. Chemosphere, 76, 494-501.
[27] Singh, B.K., Walker, A. and Wright, D.J. (2006) Bioremedial Potential of Fenamiphos and Chlorpyrifos Degrading Isolates: Influence of Different Environmental Conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, 2682-2693.
[28] Anwar, S., Liaquat, F., Khan, Q.M., Khalid, Z.M. and Iqbal, S. (2009) Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Its Hydrolysis Product 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus Strain C2A1. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 400-405.
[29] Awasthi, N., Manickam, N. and Kumar, A. (1997) Biodegradation of Endosulfan by a Bacterial Coculture. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 59, 928-934.
[30] Sutherland, T.D., Horne, I., Lacey, M.J., Harcourt, R.L., Russell, R.J. and Oakeshott, J.G. (2000) Enrichment of an Endosulfan-Degrading Mixed Bacterial Culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 2822-2828.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.