Prevalence and Sex Distribution of Temporomandibular Disorder and Their Association with Anxiety and Depression in Indian Medical University Students


Objectives: The term TMD refers to a group of disorders characterized by pain in the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. The aim of this study was designed to evaluate prevalence, severity and sex distribution of sign and symptoms of TMD and to evaluate their relation with anxiety and depression among the students. Material and Methods: A total of 1000 university students were enrolled in the study (550 females; 450 males), with ages ranged between 18 and 28 years. Helkimo anamnestic index (Ai) and clinical dysfunction index (Di) were used to determine symptoms and signs respectively. For the association of TMD with anxiety and depression, HAD (Hospital Anxiety and Depression) scale was used. Results showed that prevalence of one or more symptoms of TMD was 27.7%, while the prevalence of one or more signs of TMD was 64.4% which was mild in severity. Mild anamnestic symptoms (AiI) were found in 19.8% and severe symptoms (AiII) were found in 7.6%, while mild clinical sign (DiI), moderate clinical (DiII) and severe clinical sign (DiIII) were found in 49.7%, 12.2% and 2.4% respectively. Statistically there was no gender difference in these two scales. Regarding the association between TMD with anxiety and depression, 206 of the 311 students (66.2%) with TMD symptoms also had signs of anxiety and depression (P < 0.001). Conclusion: These findings confirmed that students had high prevalence of TMD which was significantly associated with anxiety and depression.

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Majumder, K. , Sharma, S. , Rao JK, D. , Siwach, V. , Arya, V. and Gulia, S. (2015) Prevalence and Sex Distribution of Temporomandibular Disorder and Their Association with Anxiety and Depression in Indian Medical University Students. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6, 570-578. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.68076.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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