Share This Article:

Assessment of Relationship between Pain and Anxiety Following Dental Extraction—A Prospective Study

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:253KB) PP. 23-30
DOI: 10.4236/pst.2015.33003    3,384 Downloads   4,449 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective—Anxiety and expected dental pain are the main reasons for avoiding any dental treatment by general population. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the various factors which can in-crease the anxiety and its association with pain perception of patients following dental extraction. Material and Methods—We had included 100 patients in our study who were undergoing orthodontic treatment and required extraction of either 34 or 44. Pain and anxiety levels after extraction were assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS) and an anxiety questionnaire consisting of eleven questions. Results—The mean VAS score for the entire study group was 16.23 ± 1.28 with statistically significant differences between genders, and was high in females and no statistically significant differences between different age groups. The mean anxiety score was 10.64 ± 3.12. This was significantly higher in women (P = 0.005), but there was no statistically significant differences between different age groups. There was a statistically significant correlation between VAS and total anxiety score (P < 0.001) as well as each question, except for question number 4, 8 and 9 in men. Conclusion—Although most patients had experienced limited pain, there was a significant gender difference in pain and anxiety level. They were anxious because they expected pain, women being more anxious than men. The most provoking factor for anxiety and pain while going for extraction in females was “being seated in dental chair”, while in men the most provoking factor was “uncertainty about proper numbness before extraction”.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sharma, S. , Majumder, K. , Rao, J. , Arya, V. , Siwach, V. and Gulia, S. (2015) Assessment of Relationship between Pain and Anxiety Following Dental Extraction—A Prospective Study. Pain Studies and Treatment, 3, 23-30. doi: 10.4236/pst.2015.33003.

References

[1] Guzeldemir, E., Toygar, H.U. and Cilasun, U. (2008) Pain Perception and Anxiety during Scaling in Periodontally Healthy Subjects. Journal of Periodontology, 79, 2247-2255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2008.080152
[2] Maggirias, J. and Locker, D. (2002) Psychological Factors and Perceptions of Pain Associated with Dental Treatment. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30, 151-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0528.2002.300209.x
[3] Rhudy, J.L. and Meagher, M.W. (2000) Fear and Anxiety: Divergent Effects on Human Pain Thresholds. Pain, 84, 65-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00183-9
[4] Chanpong, B., Haas, D.A. and Locker, D. (2005) Need and Demand for Sedation or General Anesthesia in Dentistry: A National Survey of the Canadian Population. Anesthesia Progress, 52, 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2344/0003-3006(2005)52[3:NADFSO]2.0.CO;2
[5] Moore, R., Birn, H., Kirkegaard, E., Brodsgaard, I. and Scheutz, F. (1993) Prevalence and Characteristics of Dental Anxiety in Danish Adults. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 21, 292-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.1993.tb00777.x
[6] Weinstein, P., Shimono, T., Domoto, P., Wohlers, K., Matsumura, S., Ohmura, M., Uchida, H. and Omachi, K. (1993) Dental Fear in Japan: Okayama Prefecture School Study of Adolescents and Adults. Anesthesia Progress, 39, 215-220.
[7] Al-Khabbaz, A.K., Griffin, T.J. and Al-Shammari, K.F. (2007) Assessment of Pain Associated with the Surgical Placement of Dental Implants. Journal of Periodontology, 78, 239-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2007.060032
[8] Eli, I., Schwartz-Arad, D., Baht, R. and Ben-Tuvim, H. (2003) Effect of Anxiety on the Experience of Pain in Implant Insertion. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 14, 115-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0501.2003.140115.x
[9] Seymour, R.A., Meechan, J.G. and Blair, G.S. (1985) An Investigation into Postoperative Pain after Third Molar Surgery Under Local Analgesia. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 23, 410-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0266-4356(85)90025-7
[10] Kvale, G., Berggren, U. and Milgrom, P. (2004) Dental Fear in Adults: A Metaanalysis of Behavioral Interventions. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 32, 250-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2004.00146.x
[11] McNeil, D.W. and Berryman, M.L. (1989) Components of Dental Fear in Adults? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 233-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(89)90041-7
[12] De Jongh, A., Schutjes, M. and Aartman, I.H. (2011) A Test of Berggren’s Model of Dental Fear and Anxiety. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 119, 361-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2011.00843.x
[13] Erten, H., Akarslan, Z.Z. and Bodrumlu, E. (2006) Dental Fear and Anxiety Levels of Patients Attending a Dental Cli- nic. Quintessence International, 37, 304-310.
[14] Locker, D., Shapiro, D. and Liddell, A. (1996) Negative Dental Experiences and Their Relationship to Dental Anxiety. Community Dental Health, 13, 86-92.
[15] Humphris, G. and King, K. (2011) The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety across Previous Distressing Experiences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 232-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.09.007
[16] De Jongh, A., Fransen, J., Oosterink-Wubbe, F. and Aartman, I. (2006) Psychological Trauma Exposure and Trauma Symptoms among Individuals with High and Low Levels of Dental Anxiety. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 114, 286-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2006.00384.x
[17] Ray, J., Boman, U.W., Bodin, L., Berggren, U., Lichtenstein, P. and Broberg, A.G. (2010) Heritability of Dental Fear. Journal of Dental Research, 89, 297-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034509356918
[18] Portmann, K. and Radanov, B.P. (1997) Dental Anxiety and Illness Behaviour. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66, 141-144 http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000289124
[19] Soh, G. (1992) Effects of Explanation of Treatment Procedures on Dental Fear. Clinical Preventive Dentistry, 14, 10-13.
[20] Corah, N.L. (1969) Development of a Dental Anxiety Scale. Journal of Dental Research, 48, 596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220345690480041801
[21] Kleinknecht, R.A., Klepac, R.K. and Alexander, L.D. (1973) Origins and Characteristics of Fear of Dentistry. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 86, 842-848. http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1973.0165
[22] Karadottir, H., Lenoir, L., Barbierato, B., Bogle, M., Riggs, M., Sigurdsson, T., Crigger, M. and Egelberg, J. (2002) Pain Experienced by Patients during Periodontal Maintenance Treatment. Journal of Periodontology, 73, 536-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2002.73.5.536
[23] Chung, D.T., Bogle, G., Bernardini, M., Stephens, D., Riggs, M.L. and Egelberg, J.H. (2003) Pain Experienced by Patients during Periodontal Maintenance. Journal of Periodontology, 74, 1293-1301.
[24] de Jongh, A., Olff, M., van Hoolwerff, H., Aartman, I.H., Broekman, B., Lindauer, R., et al. (2008) Anxiety and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Following Wisdom Tooth Removal. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 1305- 1310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.09.004
[25] Rudin, A., Eriksson, L., Liedholm, R., List, T. and Werner, M.U. (2010) Prediction of Postoperative Pain after Mandibular Third Molar Surgery. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain, 24, 189-196.
[26] Heins, P.J., Karpinia, K.A., Maruniak, J.W., Moorhead, J.E. and Gibbs, C.H. (1998) Pain Threshold Values during Periodontal Probing: Assessment of Maxillary Incisor and Molar Sites. Journal of Periodontology, 69, 812-818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.1998.69.7.812
[27] Doerr, P.A., Lang, W.P., Nyquist, L.V. and Ronis, D.L. (1998) Factors Associated with Dental Anxiety. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 129, 1111-1119. http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1998.0386
[28] Sjogren, A., Arnrup, K., Jensen, C., Knutsson, I. and Huggare, J. (2010) Pain and Fear in Connection to Orthodontic Extractions of Deciduous Canines. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 20, 193-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01040.x
[29] Van Wijk, A.J., de Jongh, A. and Lindeboom, J.A. (2010) Anxiety Sensitivity as a Predictor of Anxiety and Pain Related to Third Molar Removal. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 68, 2723-2729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2010.06.174
[30] Canakçi, C.F. and Canakçi, V. (2007) Pain Experienced by Patients Undergoing Different Periodontal Therapies. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 138, 1563-1573. http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2007.0105
[31] Pihlstrom, B.L., Hargreaves, K.M., Bouwsma, O.J., Myers, W.R., Goodale, M.B. and Doyle, M.J. (1999) Pain after Periodontal Scaling and Root Planing. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 130, 801-807. http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1999.0303
[32] Sankilop, S., Aggarwal, P. and Patil, S. (2011) Relationship between Dental Anxiety and Pain Perception during Scaling. Journal of Oral Science, 53, 341-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.53.341
[33] Woolgrove, J. (1983) Pain Perception and Patient Management. British Dental Journal, 154, 243-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4805045
[34] Rachman, S. and Arntz, A. (1991) The Overprediction and Underprediction of Pain. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 339-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358(91)90112-8

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.