Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the Dschang Municipality, Cameroon

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25071   PDF   HTML     7,522 Downloads   14,587 Views   Citations


In the poor zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the conventional drinking water network is very weak. The populations use alternative groundwater sources which are wells and springs. However, because of urbanization, the groundwater sources are degrading gradually making pure, safe, healthy and odourless drinking water a matter of deep concern. There are many pollutants in groundwater due to seepage of organic and inorganic pollutants, heavy metals, etc. Seventeen alternative water points created in 2008, for drinking water in Dschang municipality were examined for their physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics. The results revealed that water from managed points in Dschang is of poor quality. Most of the water samples were below or out of safety limits (standards) provided by WHO. The water is characterized by high turbidity and presence of feacal coliforms. It can be used for drinking and cooking only after prior treatment. This situation shows that water point management was limited only to the drawing up comfort. These water points require installation of suitable surfaces of filtration and the development of a chlorination follow-up plan. Specific concerns of well water were raised and the management options to be taken proposed.

Share and Cite:

T. Emile, "Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the Dschang Municipality, Cameroon," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 620-628. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.25071.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Third Edition, Incorporating the First and Second Addenda, Volume 1: Recommendations,” WHO, Geneva, 2008.
[2] INS, “Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2007,” Institut National de Statistique, 2008.
[3] E. Tanawa, “Gestion et valorisation des eaux usées dans les zones à habitat planifié et leurs périphéries,” Rapport Leseau/ENSP Yaoundé Cameroun/Equipe Développement Urbain INSA de Lyon, September 2002.
[4] E. Tanawa, H. B. Djeuda Tchapnga, E. Ngnikam, E. Temgoua and J. Siakeu, “Habitat and Protection of Water Resources in Suburban Areas in African Cities,” Building and Environment, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2002, pp. 269-275. doi:10.1016/S0360-1323(01)00024-5
[5] E. Temgoua, E. Ngnikam and B. Ndongson, “Drinking Water Quality: Stakes of Control and Sanitation in the Town of Dschang – Cameroon,” International Journal of Biology and Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2009, pp. 441-447.
[6] European Union, “Directive du conseil 98/83/EC sur la qualité de l’eau attendue pour la consommation humaine, ” 1998.
[7] B. G. Prasad and T. S. Narayana, “Subsurface Water Quality of Different Sampling Stations with Some Selected Parameters at Machilipatman Town,” Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2004, pp. 47-50.
[8] H. B. Djeuda Tchapnga, E. Tanawa and E. Ngnikam, “L’eau au Cameroun. Tome 1: approvisionnement en eau potable,” Presses Universitaires de Yaoundé, Coll. Connaissances de …, 2001.
[9] N. Boon, “Environmental Burden of Water Borne Disease in Dschang, Western Provence-Cameroon: Health impacts and causal factors,” Breaking Ground Report, 2008.
[10] V. Katte, M. F. Fonteh and G. N. Guemeh, “Effectiveness of Home Water Treatment Methods in Dschang, Cameroon,” Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2005, pp. 102-106.
[11] G. N. Guemuh, “Quality of Domestic Water Supply and Effectiveness of Some Locally Used Treatment Me- thods,” Master’s Thesis, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Dschang, Dschang, 2003.
[12] A. Da Costa, “L’approvisionnement en eau potable des populations de la ville de Dschang,” Master’s Thesis, the Department of Geography, University of Bordeaux III, 2004.
[13] J. Ndounla, “Caractéristiques biologiques et physico- chimiques de l’eau de consommation et influence du mode d’approvisionnement sur la santé des populations à Dschang,” Masters Thesis, the Department of Animal Biology, University of Dschang, Dschang, 2007.
[14] USEPA, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edition,” Washington DC, 2005.
[15] P. Jain, J. D. Sharma, D. Sohu and P. Sharma, “Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water of Villages of Sanganer Tehsil, Jaipur District,” International Journal of Environ- mental Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005, pp. 373- 379.
[16] J. P. Duchemin, “Impact des conditions d’alimentation en eau potable et d’assainissement sur la santé publique,” Document de synthèse pS-Eau, Ouagadougou, 1998.
[17] ERA – Cameroun, “Diagnostic de l’approvisionnement en eau et de l’assainissement dans la ville de Dschang,” CUD, 2005.
[18] C. Keambou, ”Inventaire des genres parasitaires gastroin- testinaux à potentiel zoonosiques des hommes et des animaux domestiques à Dschang (Ouest-Cameroun),” Thèse de Master, Département de biologie animale, Université de Dschang, Dschang, 2002.
[19] M. D. Ennayat, K. G. Mekhael, M. M. El-Hossany, M. Abdel-El Kadir and R. Arafa, “Coliform Organisms in Drinking Water in Kalama Village,” Bulletin of the Nutrition Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Vol. 8, 1988, pp. 66-81.
[20] H. Moshtaghi and M. Boniadian, “Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Shahrekord (Iran),” Research Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2007, pp. 299-302. doi:10.3923/jm.2007.299.302
[21] E. Djuikom, E. Temgoua, L. B. Jugnia, M. Nola and M. Baane, “Pollution bactériologique des puits d’eau utilisés par les populations dans la Communauté Urbaine de Douala – Cameroun,” International Journal of Biology and Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2009, pp. 967-978.
[22] UN-HABITAT, “Municipalité de Dschang: une ville au passé glorieux face aux nouveaux défis,” 2005.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.