Characterization of Scale Formed in Drinking Water and Hot Water Pipes in the Taliouine Downtown—Morocco


This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study of water scale found in water distribution system of Taliouine city in the south of Morocco. Physico-chemical properties of drinking water supplied to the city were evaluated. The data showed a high level of soluble salt in water. Concentrations were calcium 108 - 143 mg/1, magnesium 80 - 96 mg/1, bicarbonate 660 - 750 mg/l and hardness degree 660 - 690 mg CaCO3/l. The water samples contain high amounts of minerals in the form of ions, especially the metals calcium and bicarbonate, which precipitated out and caused problems in water conducting or storing vessels like pipes. Scales were removed from the inside of two old pipes which transported drinking and hot water in the downtown of Taliouine city. Scale samples were investigated by XRF, XRD, SEM, DTA, TGA and SEM’s analytical techniques. This study was able to identify scales formed in pipes of water distribution systems. It was found that water scale in this city contains 53% of calcium oxide and 43% of organic matter. The XRD and SEM results revealed that calcite was the main crystalline structure in drinking water scale. Nevertheless, scale deposited in hot water pipe is well crystalline with peaks corresponding mostly to aragonite (88%) along with calcite (12%). The thermal behavior of scale samples confirms that calcium carbonate was the main compound in the scale samples. Further studies are needed to find an efficient antiscale in drinking water of this city.

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Hafid, N. , Belaatar, M. , Ben-Aazza, S. , Hadfi, A. , Ezahri, M. and Driouiche, A. (2015) Characterization of Scale Formed in Drinking Water and Hot Water Pipes in the Taliouine Downtown—Morocco. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 677-686. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.68065.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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