Validation of the Physical Education Teacher’s Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) Scale


The main purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) scale, developed by the current investigators, and to compare the ESBI with two other self-efficacy scales that had been used in physical education (TESPE, Chase, Lirgg, & Carson, 2001;TSES, Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES were administered to 60 physical education teachers from 16 school districts in Iowa. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) for the ESBI was .96, and the Equal-Length Spearman Brown split-half coefficient inferred good reliability (r = .90). The ESBI demonstrated better validity and reliability than the previously developed TESPE (Cronbach’s alpha = .89; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .86) and TSES (Cronbach’s alpha = .84; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .79). As a test of concurrent validity for ESBI, Pearson’s product moment correlations were performed to test the extent to which the total efficacy scores and subscales were related. The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES all had significant positive correlations with each other (p < .01). Validation of the three self- efficacy scales was also performed using the ranked Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (PECAT) score for each district as an independent measure. The ESBI scale produced a low but significant correlation (r = .28, p < .05) with PECAT, but TSES and TESPE were not significant. This suggested that ESBI was more related to standards and benchmarks than the other two measures. These results indicate that the ESBI has shown good (versus TESPE) or better (versus TESES) validity and reliability compared with previous work. This work also supports Bandura’s (1986) notion of specificity for self-efficacy.

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Buns, M. and Thomas, K. (2015) Validation of the Physical Education Teacher’s Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) Scale. Advances in Physical Education, 5, 152-160. doi: 10.4236/ape.2015.53019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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