Turkey Creek—A Case Study of Ecohydrology and Integrated Watershed Management in the Low-Gradient Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.710065   PDF   HTML   XML   2,846 Downloads   3,520 Views   Citations


Water yield, water supply and quality, wildlife habitat, and ecosystem productivity and services are important societal concerns for natural resource management in the 21st century. Watershed-scale ecohydrologic studies can provide needed context for addressing complex spatial and temporal dynamics of these functions and services. This study was conducted on the 5240 ha Turkey Creek watershed (WS 78) draining a 3rd order stream on the Santee Experimental Forest within the South Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. The study objectives were to present the hydrologic characteristics of this relatively undisturbed, except by a hurricane (Hugo, 1989), forested water-shed and to discuss key elements for watershed management, including water resource assessment (WRM), modeling integrated water resources management, environmental assessment, land use planning, social impact assessment, and information management. Runoff coefficients, flow duration curves, flood and low flow frequency curves, surface and ground water yields were assessed as elements of the WRM. Results from the last 10 years of interdisciplinary studies have also advanced the understanding of coastal ecohydrologic characteristics and processes, water balance, and their modeling including the need of high resolution LiDAR data. For example, surface water dynamics were shown to be regulated primarily by the water table, dependent upon pre- cipitation and evapotranspiration (ET). Analysis of pre- and post-Hugo streamflow data showed somewhat lower but insignificant (α = 0.05) mean annual flow but increased frequency of larger flows for the post-Hugo compared with the pre-Hugo level. However, there was no significant difference in mean annual ET, potentially indicating the resiliency of this coastal forest. Although the information from this study may be useful for comparison of coastal ecohydrologic issues, it is becoming increasingly clear that multi-site studies may be warranted to understand these complex systems in the face of climate change, sea level rise, and increasing development in coastal regions.

Share and Cite:

Amatya, D. , Callahan, T. , Hansen, W. , Trettin, C. , Radecki-Pawlik, A. and Meire, P. (2015) Turkey Creek—A Case Study of Ecohydrology and Integrated Watershed Management in the Low-Gradient Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 792-814. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.710065.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Reice, S. (2005) Ecosystems, Disturbance and the Impact of Sprawl. In: Johnson, E.A. and Klemens, M.W., Eds., Nature in Fragments: The Legacy of Sprawl, Columbia University Press, New York, 90-108.
[2] Smith, H.R. (2012) Rich Swamps and Rice Grounds: The Specialization of Inland Rice Culture in the South Carolina Low Country, 1670-1861. PhD Dissertation, The University of Georgia, Athens.
[3] Dai, Z., Trettin, C. and Amatya, D.M. (2013) Effects of Climate Variability on Forest Hydrology and Carbon Sequestration on the Santee Experimental Forest in Coastal South Carolina. SRS-172, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, 32.
[4] Golden, H.E., Lane, C.R., Amatya, D., Bandilla, K., Raanan-Kiperwas, H., Knightes, C.D. and Ssegane, H. (2014) Hydrologic Connectivity between Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Surface Water Systems: A Review of Select Modeling Methods. Environmental Modeling & Software, 53, 190-206.
[5] Doar, W.R. (2014) The Geologic Implications of the Factors That Affected Relative Sea-Level Positions in South Carolina During the Pleistocene and the Associated Preserved High-Stand Deposits. PhD Dissertation, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
[6] Messina, M.G. and Conner, W.H. (1997) Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[7] Amatya, D.M., Callahan, T.J. and Trettin, C.C. (2015) Synthesis of 10 Years of Hydrologic Studies on Turkey Creek Watershed. Proceedings of the 5th Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Charleston, 2-5 March 2015.
[8] Amatya, D.M., Skaggs, R.W. and Gregory, J.D. (1997) Evaluation of a Watershed Scale Forest Hydrologic Model. Agricultural Water Management, 32, 239-258.
[9] Aust, W.M., Reisinger, T.W., Burger, J.A. and Stokes, B.J. (1993) Soil Physical and Hydrological Changes Associated with Logging a Wet Pine Flat with Wide-Tired Skidders. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 17, 22-25.
[10] Amatya, D.M., Skaggs, R.W. and Gregory, J.D. (1996) Effects of Controlled Drainage on the Hydrology of Drained Pine Plantations in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Journal of Hydrology, 181, 211-232.
[11] Callahan, T.J., Vulava, V.M., Passarello, M.C. and Garrett, C.G. (2012) Estimating Groundwater Recharge in Lowland Watersheds. Hydrological Processes, 26, 2845-2855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8356
[12] Epps, T.H., Hitchcock, D.R., Jayakaran, A.D., Loflin, D.R., Williams, T.M. and Amatya, D.M. (2013) Characterization of Storm Flow Dynamics of Headwater Streams in the South Carolina Lower Coastal Plain. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 49, 76-89.
[13] Slattery, M.C., Gares, P.A. and Phillips, J.D. (2006) Multiple Modes of Storm Runoff Generation in a North Carolina Coastal Plain Watershed. Hydrological Processes, 20, 2953-2969.
[14] Amatya, D.M., Miwa, M., Harrison, C.A., Trettin, C.C. and Sun, G. (2006) Hydrology and Water Quality of Two First Order Forested Watersheds in Coastal South Carolina. ASABE Annual Conference, 22.
[15] Amatya, D.M., Callahan, T.J., Trettin, C.C. and Radecki-Pawlik, A. (2009) Hydrologic and Water Quality Monitoring on Turkey Creek Watershed, Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina. ASABE Annual Conference, Reno.
[16] Burke, M.K. and Eisenbies, M.H. (2000) The Coosawhatchie Bottomland Ecosystem Study a Report on the Development of a Reference Wetland. SRS-38, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, 64.
[17] Harder, S.V., Amatya, D.M., Callahan, T.J., Trettin, C.C. and Hakkila, J. (2007) Hydrology and Water Budget for a Forested Atlantic Coastal Plain Watershed, South Carolina. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43, 563-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00035.x
[18] La Torre Torres, I.B., Amatya, D.M., Sun, G. and Callahan, T.J. (2011) Seasonal Rainfall-Runoff Relationships in a Lowland Forested Watershed in the Southeastern USA. Hydrological Processes, 25, 2032-2045. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7955
[19] McCarthy, E.J., Skaggs, R.W. and Farnum, P. (1991) Experimental Determination of the Hydrologic Components of a Drained Forest Watershed. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 34, 2031-2040. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.31833
[20] Pyzoha, J.E., Callahan, T.J., Sun, G., Trettin, C.C. and Miwa, M. (2008) A Conceptual Hydrologic Model for a Forested Carolina Bay Depressional Wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hydrological Processes, 22, 2689-2698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6866
[21] Riekerk, H., Jones, S.A., Morris, L.A. and Pratt, D.A. (1979) Hydrology and Water Quality of Three Small Lower Coastal Plain Forested Watersheds. Proceedings of the Soil Crop Science Society of Florida, 38, 105-111.
[22] Skaggs, R.W., Chescheir, G.M., Fernandez, G.P., Amatya, D.M. and Diggs, J. (2011) Effects of Land Use on Soil Properties and Hydrology of Drained Coastal Plain Watersheds. Transactions of the ASABE, 54, 1357-1365. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.39037
[23] Sun, G., Callahan, T.J., Pyzoha, J.E. and Trettin, C.C. (2006) Modeling the Climatic and Subsurface Stratigraphy Controls on the Hydrology of a Carolina Bay Wetland in South Carolina, USA. Wetlands, 26, 567-580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2006)26[567:MTCASS]2.0.CO;2
[24] Sun, G., Lu, J., Gardner, D., Miwa, M. and Trettin, C.C. (2000) Water Budgets of Two Forested Watersheds in South Carolina. Spring Specialty Conference of American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, 199-202.
[25] Young, C.E. and Klawitter, R.A. (1968) Hydrology of Wetland Forest Watersheds. Proceedings of Hydrology in Water Resources Management, Clemson, 29-38.
[26] Young, C.E. (1964) Precipitation-Runoff Relations of Small Forested Watersheds in the Coastal Plain. Wetland Hydrology Study Plan W-3, USDA Forest Service, Charleston, 23.
[27] Amatya, D.M. and Trettin, C.C. (2007) Annual Evapotranspiration of a Forested Wetland Watershed, South Carolina. ASABE Annual Conference, 4.
[28] Eidson, J.P., Lacy, C.M., Nance, L., Hansen, W.F., Lowery, M.A. and Hurley, N.M. (2005) Development of a 10-and 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit Code Numbering System. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 38.
[29] USFS (2011) Watershed Condition Framework Technical Guide. FS-978, USDA Forest Service, 49.
[30] Amatya, D.M. and Jha, M.K. (2011) Evaluating Swat Model for a Low-Gradient Forested Watershed in Coastal South Carolina. Transactions of the ASABE, 54, 2151-2162.
[31] BCD-COG (2000) Water Quality Management Plan, Vol. II. A Report. Berkeley Charleston Dorchester Council of Governments, North Charleston, 11.
[32] Haley, E.B. (2007) Field Measurements and Hydrologic Modeling of the Turkey Creek Watershed, South Carolina. MS Thesis, College of Charleston, Charleston.
[33] Maceyka, A. and Hansen, W.F. (2015) Enhancing Hydrologic Mapping Using Lidar and High Resolution Aerial Photos on the Francis Marion National Forest in Coastal South Carolina. Proceedings of the 5th Interagency Conference on Research on Watersheds, Charleston.
[34] Amatya, D.M., Trettin, C., Panda, S. and Ssegane, H. (2013) Application of Lidar Data for Hydrologic Assessments of Low-Gradient Coastal Watershed Drainage Characteristics. Journal of Geographical Information System, 5, 175-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2013.52017
[35] Campbell, B.G. and Coes, A.L. (2010) Groundwater Availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina. Professional Paper 1773, US Geological Survey, Reston, 241.
[36] Hook, D.D., Buford, M.A. and Williams, T.M. (1991) Impact of Hurricane Hugo on the South Carolina Coastal Plain Forest. Journal of Coastal Research, 8, 291-300.
[37] SCDNR (2009) South Carolina Water Resources Assessment. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Columbia.
[38] Barker, R.A. and Pernik, M. (1994) Regional Hydrology and Simulation of Deep Ground-Water Flow in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Aquifer System in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. Professional Paper 1410C, US Geological Survey.
[39] Colquhoun, D.J. (1974) Cyclic Surficial Stratigraphic Units of the Middle and Lower Coastal Plain, Central South Carolina. In: Post-Miocene Stratigraphy, Central and Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain, Utah State University Press, Logan.
[40] NRCS (1980) Soil Survey Report of Berkeley County, South Carolina. US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 94.
[41] Law, D. (2006) USDA Forest Service. Columbia.
[42] Hargreaves, G.H. and Samani, Z.A. (1985) Reference Crop Evapotranspiration from Temperature. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 1, 96-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.26773
[43] Monteith, J.L. (1965) Evaporation and Environment. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, 19, 205-234.
[44] Amatya, D.M. and Radecki-Pawlik, A. (2007) Flow Dynamics of Three Experimental Forested Watersheds in Coastal South Carolina, U.S.A. Acta Scientiarium Polonorum Formatio Cirtumiectus, 6, 3-16.
[45] Arnold, J.G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R.S. and Williams, J.R. (1998) Area Hydrologic Modeling and Assessment Part I: Model Development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 34, 73-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1998.tb05961.x
[46] Marion, D.A., Sun, G., Caldwell, P.V., Chelcy, F., Conrads, P.A., Laird, S.G., Dai, Z., Meyers, J.A.M. and Trettin, C. (2013) Managing Forest Water Quantity and Quality under Climate Change. In: Vose, J. and Kleipzig, K., Eds., Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Management Options: A Guide for Natural Resource Managers in Southern Forest Ecosystems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 496.
[47] Feaster, T.D., A.J., G. and Weaver, J.C. (2009) Magnitude and Frequency of Rural Floods in the Southeastern United States, 2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5156, US Geological Survey, 226.
[48] Benson, M.A. and Carter, R.W. (1973) A National Study of the Streamflow Data-Collection Program. Water-Supply Paper 2208, US Geological Survey, 44.
[49] Richter, B.D., Baumgartner, J.V., Powell, J. and Braun, D.P. (1996) A Method for Assessing Hydrologic Alteration within Ecosystems. Conservation Biology, 10, 1163-1174.
[50] Amatya, D.M., Harrison, C.A. and Trettin, C.C. (2014) Comparison of Potential Evapotranspiration Using Three Methods for a Grass Reference and a Natural Forest in Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Proceedings of the 2014 South Carolina Water Resources Conference, Columbia.
[51] Amatya, D.M. and Trettin, C.C. (2010) Outflow Characteristics of a Naturally Drained Forested Watershed in Coastal South Carolina. 9th International Drainage Symposium, Held Jointly with CIGR and CSBE/SCGAB, Quebec City.
[52] U.S. EPA (2015) Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Review and Synthesis of the Scientific Evidence (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-14/475F. http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=296414
[53] Schot, P. and Winter, T. (2006) Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Wetlands for Integrated Water Resources Management. Journal of Hydrology, 30, 261-263.
[54] Colquhoun, D.J., Gardner, R.L. and Steele, K.B. (1986) Recharge-Discharge Area, Piezometric Surface and Water Chemistry Characteristics of the Tertiary Limestone Aquifer System in South Carolina. Water Resources Research Institute, Clemson.
[55] Meadows, J.K. (1987) Ground-Water Conditions in the Santee Limestone and Black Mingo Formation near Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, South Carolina. WRC-156, South Carolina Water Resources Commission, Columbia, 38.
[56] Bouwer, H. (1989) Bouwer and Rice Slug Test—An Update: Bouwer, H Ground WaterV27, N3, May-June 1989, P304-309. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 26, 305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(89)91577-5
[57] Bouwer, H. and Rice, R.C. (1976) A Slug Test for Determining Hydraulic Conductivity of Unconfined Aquifers with Completely or Partially Penetrating Wells. Water Resources Research, 12, 423-428.
[58] Aucott, W.R. and Speiran, G.K. (1985) Potentiometric Surfaces of November 1982 and Declines in the Potentiometric Surfaces between the Period Prior to Development and November 1982 for the Coastal Plain Aquifers of South Carolina. Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4215, US Geological Survey.
[59] Newcome Jr., R. (1989) Ground-Water Resources of South Carolina’s Coastal Plain. WRC-167, South Carolina Water Resources Commission, Columbia.
[60] Weems, R.E. and Lemon, E.M. (1993) Geology of the Cainhoy, Charleston, Fort Moultrie, and North Charleston Quadrangles, Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map I-1935, US Geological Survey, Reston.
[61] Plewa, T. and Hansen, W. (2003) Current Status of Water Quality Information on the Francis Marion National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Columbia, 43.
[62] Muwamba, A., Amatya, D.M., Trettin, C. and Glover, J. (2015) Comparing Nutrient Exports from 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Order Watersheds on South Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain. Proceedings of the 5th Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, North Charleston.
[63] Bureau, U.S.C. (2010) Census of Population, State & County Quick Facts: Berkeley County, South Carolina. Washington DC.
[64] USFS (2015) Francis Marion National Forest Plan Revision Environmental Impact Statement. USDA Forest Service (under Internal Review before Public Release).
[65] Dai, Z., Li, C., Trettin, C.C., Sun, G., Amatya, D.M. and Li, H. (2010) Sensitivity of Stream Flow and Water Table Depth to Potential Climatic Variability in a Coastal Forested Watershed. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 46, 1036-1048.
[66] Miwa, M., Gardner, D.L., Bunton, C.S., Humphreys, R. and Trettin, C.C. (2003) Characterization of Headwater Stream Hydrology in the Southeastern Lower Coastal Plain. USDA Forest Service, Charleston.
[67] Griffin, M.P., Callahan, T.J., Vulava, V.M. and Williams, T.M. (2014) Storm-Event Flow Pathways in Lower Coastal Plain Forested Watersheds of the Southeastern United States. Water Resources Research, 50, 8265-8280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015941
[68] Garrett, C.G., Vulava, V.M., Callahan, T.J. and Jones, M.L. (2012) Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in a Lowland Watershed: Source Contribution to Stream Flow. Hydrological Processes, 26, 3195-3206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8257
[69] Griffin, M.P., Epps, T.H., Callahan, T.J., Vulava, V.M. and Hitchock, D.R. (2012) Using Water Chemistry Data to Assess Stormwater Pathways in Lowland Watersheds. Proceedings of the 2012 South Carolina Water Resources Conference, Columbia.
[70] Amoah, J.K.O. (2008) A New Methodology for Estimating Watershed-Scale Depression Storage. PhD Dissertation, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee.
[71] Amoah, J.K.O., Amatya, D.M. and Nnaji, S. (2013) Quantifying Watershed Surface Depression Storage: Determination and Application in a Hydrologic Model. Hydrological Processes, 27, 2401-2413.
[72] Dai, Z., Li, C., Trettin, C., Sun, G., Amatya, D. and Li, H. (2010) Bi-Criteria Evaluation of the Mike She Model for a Forested Watershed on the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 1033-1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-1033-2010
[73] Amatya, D.M., Ssegane, H., Harrison, C.A. and Trettin, C.C. (2015b) Testing Resiliency of Hydrologic Dynamics of a Paired Forested Watershed after a Hurricane in Atlantic Coastal Plain.
[74] Dai, Z., Li, C., Trettin, C.C., Sun, G., Amatya, D.M. and Li, H. (2011) Climate Variability and Its Impact on Forest Hydrology on South Carolina Coastal Plain, USA. Atmosphere, 2, 330-357.
[75] Jayakaran, A.D., Williams, T.M., Ssegane, H., Amatya, D.M., Song, B. and Trettin, C.C. (2014) Hurricane Impacts on a Pair of Coastal Forested Watersheds: Implications of Selective Hurricane Damage to Forest Structure and Streamflow Dynamics. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18, 1151-1164.
[76] Wilson, L., Amatya, D.M., Callahan, T.J. and Trettin, C.C. (2006) Hurricane Impact on Stream Flow and Nutrient Exports for a First Order Forested Watershed of the Lower Coastal Plain, South Carolina. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Research on Watersheds, Coweeta.
[77] NCDWQ (2005) Identification Methods for the Origins of Intermittent and Perennial Streams, Version 3.1. North Carolina Division of Water Quality, Raleigh.
[78] Trettin, C.C., Amatya, D.M., Kaufman, C., Levine, N. and Morgan, R.T. (2008) Recognizing Change in Hydrologic Functions and Pathways Due to Historical Agricultural Use—Implications to Hydrologic Assessment and Modeling. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Aspen.
[79] Czwartacki, B.J., Trettin, C.C. and Callahan, T.J. (2015) Water Dynamics along the Terrestrial Boundary of a Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetland. Wetlands (Submitted for Review December 2014).
[80] USFS (2003) Roads Analysis: Francis Marion National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Columbia, 36.
[81] McLaughlin, K., Ragus, J. and Hansen, W.F. (2002) Soil and Water Conservation Practices Guide. USDA Forest Service, Atlanta, 149.
[82] Amatya, D., Harrison, C. and Trettin, C. (2007) Water Quality of Two First Order Forested Watersheds in Coastal South Carolina. In: Watershed Management to Meet Water Quality Standards and Total Maximum Daily Load, Proceedings of the ASABE Annual Conference, San Antonio.
[83] Amatya, D.M., Callahan, T.J., Radecki-Pawlik, A., Drewes, P., Trettin, C. and Hansen, W.F. (2008) Hydrologic and Water Quality Monitoring on Turkey Creek Watershed, Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina. Proceedings of the 2008 South Carolina Water Resources Conference, Charleston.
[84] Wu, K. and Xu, Y.J. (2006) Evaluation of the Applicability of the Swat Model for Coastal Watersheds in Southeastern Louisiana. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 42, 1247-1260.
[85] Arnold, J.G. and Srinivasan, R. (1998) A Continuous Catchment-Scale Erosion Model. In: Boardman, J. and Favis-Mortlock, D., Eds., Modelling Soil Erosion by Water, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, 413-427.
[86] Miller, S.N., Kepner, W.G., Mehaffey, M.H., Hernandez, M., Miller, R.C., Goodrich, D.C., Kim Devonald, K., Heggem, D.T. and Miller, W.P. (2002) Integrating Landscape Assessment and Hydrologic Modeling for Land Cover Chane Analysis. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 38, 915-929.
[87] Santhi, C., Arnold, J.G., Williams, J.R., Dugas, W.A. and Hauck, L. (2002) Application of a Watershed Model to Evaluate Management Effects on Point and Non-Point Source Pollution. Transactions of the ASAE, 44, 1559-1570.
[88] Fohrer, N., Eckhardt, K. and Haverkamp, S. (1999) Applying the Swat Model as a Decision Support Tool for Land Use Concepts in Peripheral Regions in Germany. Proceedings of the 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting, West Lafayette, 994-999.
[89] Sophocleous, M.A., Koelliker, J.K., Govindaraju, R.S., Birdie, T., Ramireddygari, S.R. and Perkins, S.P. (1999) Integrated Numerical Modeling for Basin-Wide Water Management: The Case of the Rattlesnake Creek Basin in South-Central Kansas. Journal of Hydrology, 214, 179-196.
[90] Amatya, D.M., Trettin, C.C., Skaggs, R.W., Burke, M.K., Callahan, T.J., Sun, G., Nettles, J.E. and Parsons, J.E. (2005) Five Hydrologic Studies Conducted by or in Cooperation with the Center for Forested Wetlands Research. SRS-40, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, 24.
[91] Lam, Q.D., Schmalz, B. and Fohrer, N. (2010) Modelling Point and Diffuse Source Pollution of Nitrate in a Rural Lowland Catchment Using the Swat Model. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 317-325.
[92] Krause, C. and Roghair, C. (2010) Fish Inventory Results for Coastal Plain Streams on the Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina. USDA Forest Service, Blacksburg, 28.
[93] Hawkins, C.P., Olson, J.R. and Hill, R.A. (2010) The Reference Condition: Predicting Benchmarks for Ecological and Water-Quality Assessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 312-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/09-092.1

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.