Characterization of Dye Sensitized Cells Using Natural Dye from Oil Bean Leaf (Pentaclethra macrophylla): The Effect of Dye pH on the Photoelectric Parameters


Fresh leaves of oil bean (P. macrophylla) were used as sensitizers for fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) at four dye pH values of 2.58°C at 23.7°C, 2.62°C at 22.2°C, 2.65°C at 22.3°C and 3.61°C at 22.1 °C. The methanol extracts of P. macrophylla were extracted and used as sensitizers for the development of dye sensitized solar cells. The solar cells sensitized by P. macrophylla leaf extracts realised up to short circuit current (Jsc) 0.16 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) 0.045 V, Pmax 0.031 mW/ cm2 and fill factor (FF) 0.50. The energy conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSCs is 0.43%. Phytochemical screening of P. macrophylla leaf extract shows the presence of flavonoids and anthraquinones. The nanostructured dye shows conversion of solar energy into electricity using low cost natural dyes as wide band-gap semiconductor sensitizers in DSSCs. This will provide economically viable substitute to silicon p-n junction photovoltaic (PV).

Share and Cite:

Abodunrin, T. , Boyo, A. , Obafemi, O. and Adebayo, T. (2015) Characterization of Dye Sensitized Cells Using Natural Dye from Oil Bean Leaf (Pentaclethra macrophylla): The Effect of Dye pH on the Photoelectric Parameters. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 646-655. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.67066.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Gerischer, H., Michel-Beyerle, M.E., Rebentrost, F. and Tributsch, H. (1968) Sensitization of Charge into Semiconductors with Large Band Gap. Electrochimica Acta, 13, 1509-1515.
[2] Tsubomura, H., Matsumura, M., Nomura, Y. and Amamiya, T. (1976) Dye Sensitized Zinc Oxide: Aqueous Electrolyte Platinum Photocell. Nature, 261, 402-403.
[3] Czternastek, H. (2004) ZnO Thin Films Prepared by High Pressure Magnetron Sputtering. Opto-Electronics Review, 12, 49-52.
[4] Desilvestro, J., Grätzel, M., Kavan, L., Moser, E. and Augustynski, J. (1985) Highly Efficient Sensation of Titanium Dioxide. Journal of American Chemical Society, 107, 2988-2990.
[5] Grätzel, M. (2007) Photovoltaic and Photoclectrochemical Conversion of Solar Energy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 365, 993-1005.
[6] O’Regan, B. and Grätzel, M. (1991) TiO2-Based Photovoltaics. Nature, 353, 737-740.
[7] Grätzel, M. (2001) Molecular Photovoltaic That Mimic Photosynthesis. Pure Applied Chemistry, 73, 459-467.
[8] Hara, K. and Arakawa, H. (2003) Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. In: Luque, A. and Hegendus, S., Eds., Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, 663-700.
[9] Grätzel, M. (2005) Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells. In organic Chemistry, 44, 6841-6851.
[10] Efurfumibe, E.L., Asisgbu, A.D. and Onuu, M.U. (2012) Mathematical Modeling of Electron Transport through the Anode (TiO2) of a Standard Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. Asian Journal of Applied Science, 5, 34-42.
[11] Liu, J., Namboothiry, M. and Carroll, D. (2007) Fiber-Based Architectures for Organic Photovoltaics. Applied Physics Letters, 90, Article ID: 063501.
[12] Mathew, X., Thompson, G.W., Singh, V.P., et al. (2003) Development of CdTe Thin Films on Flexible Substrates—A Review. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 76, 293-303.
[13] Hao, S., Wu, J., Huang, Y. and Lin, J. (2006) Natural Dyes as Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell. Solar Energy, 80, 209-214.
[14] Zhu, H., Zeng, H., Subramanian, V., Masarapu, C., Hung, K.H. and Wei, B. (2008) Anthocyanin-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Carbon Nanotube Films as Counter Electrodes. Nanotechnology, 19, Article ID: 465204.
[15] Hara, K., Dan-Oh, Y., Kasada, C. and Arakawa, H. (2004) Effects of Additives on the Photovoltaic Performance of Coumarin-Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells. Langmuir, 20, 4205-4210.
[16] Ito, S., Zakeeruddin, S.M., Humphry-Baker, R., Liska, P., Charvet, R., Comte, P., Nazeeruddin, M.K., Pechy, P., Takata, M., Miura, H., Uchida, S. and Grätzel, M. (2006) High Efficiency Organic-Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Controlled by Nanocrystalline-TiO2 Electrode Thickness. Advanced Materials, 18, 1202-1205.
[17] Kim, S., Lee, J.K., Kang, S.O., Ko, J.J., Yum, J.H., Fantacci, S., De Angelis, F., Di Censo, D., Nazeeruddin, M.K. and Grätzel, M. (2006) Molecular Engineering of Organic Sensitizers for Solar Cell Applications. Journal of American Chemical Society, 128, 16701-16707.
[18] Calogero, G. and Marco, G.D. (2008) Red Sicillian Orange and Purple Eggplant Fruits as Natural Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Solar Energy Material Solar Cell, 92, 1341-1346.
[19] Wongcharee, K., Meeyoo, V. and Chavadej, S. (2007) Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dyes Extracted from Rosella and Blue Pea Flowers. Solar Energy Material Solar Cells, 91, 566-571.
[20] Yamazaki, E., Murayama, M., Nishikawa, N., Hashimoto, N., Shoyama, M. and Kurita, O. (2007) Utilization of Natural Carotenoids as Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. Solar Energy, 81, 512-516.
[21] Orwa, C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R. and Simons, A. (2009) Agro Forest Tree Database: A Tree Reference and Selection Guide Version 4.0.
[22] Ladipo, D.O., Kang, B.T. and Swift, M.J. (1993) Nodulation in Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth; a Multipurpose Tree with Potential for Agroforestry in the Humid Lowlands of West Africa. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 11, 104-105.
[23] Selles, A.J.N., Castro, H.T.V., Aguero-Aguero, J., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J., Naddeo, F., de Simone, F. and Rastrelli, L. (2002) Isolation and Quantitative Analysis of Phenolic Antioxidants, Free Sugars, and Polyols from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Stem Bark Aqueous Decoction Used in Cuba as a Nutritional Supplement. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, 50, 762-766.
[24] Jafarzadeh, Y., Shafiei, S., Ebadi, A. and Abdoli, M. (2010) Batch Separation of Styrene/Ethyl Benzene/Water Dispersions. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 7, 23.
[25] Jacox, M.E. (2003) Vibrational and Electronic Energy Levels of Polyatomic Transient Molecules. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 32, 1.
[26] Polo, A.S. and Iha, N.Y.M. (2006) Blue Sensitizers for Solar Cells: Natural Dyes from Calafate and Jaboticaba. Solar Energy Material Solar Cell, 90, 1936-1944.
[27] Hara, K., Horiguchi, T., Kinoshita, T., Sayama, K., Sugihara, H. and Arakawa, H. (2000) Highly Efficient Photon-to-Electron Conversion with Mercurochrome-Sensitized Nanoporous Oxide Semiconductor Solar Cells. Solar Energy Material and Solar Cells, 64, 115-134.
[28] Pradhan, B., Batabyal, S.K. and Pal, A.J. (2007) Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays in Rose Bengal-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 91, 769-773.
[29] Chang, H. and Lo, Y. (2010) Pomegranate Leaves and Mulberry Fruit as Natural Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Solar Energy, 84, 1833-1837.
[30] Patrocinio, A.O.T., Mizoguchi, S.K., Paterno, L.G., Garcia, C.G. and Iha, N.Y.M. (2009) Efficient and Low Cost Devices for Solar Energy Conversion: Efficiency and Stability of Some Natural-Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Synthetic Metals, 159, 2342-2344.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.