Rain Attenuation Effects on 2.6 GHz WiMAX Networks Deployment in Ghana

DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33009   PDF   HTML   XML   5,300 Downloads   6,081 Views  


WiMAX communication systems operating at 2.6 G frequencies are used for broadband multimedia and internet based services. At these frequencies, the signal will be affected by various propagation impairments such as rain attenuation, cloud attenuation, tropospheric scintillation, ionospheric scintillation, water vapour attenuation, and rain and ice depolarization. Among all the pro-pagation impairments, rain attenuation is the most important and critical parameter. In this research, rain attenuation is calculated at KNUST, Kumasi using ITU-R rain attenuation model. The preliminary results of the work will be used to calculate the attenuation experimentally and comparison can be made, which helps to develop a new rain attenuation model at 2.6 G bands. Rain attenuation is an important aspect of signal propagation above 2.6 GHz frequency. The attenuation time series generation from point rain rate measurement is crucial due to unavailability of actual signal measurements. In this research, a simple and realistic approach has been demonstrated for better estimation of rain attenuation using WiMAX-band signal propagation data and ground rain rate measurements in Ghana. The ITU-R model of rain attenuation has been modified by incorporating an effective slant path model. The effective slant path has been estimated and modeled in terms of a power-law relationship of rain rate data of 2007-2008. The methodology has been validated with the measured data of 2014. Comparison with ITU-R and GMET clearly demonstrates the improved predictability of the proposed model at the present tropical location.

Share and Cite:

Fiati, P. (2015) Rain Attenuation Effects on 2.6 GHz WiMAX Networks Deployment in Ghana. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3, 83-90. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Choi, Y.S., Lee, J.H. and Kim, J.M. (1997) Rain Attenuation Measurements of the Koreasat Beacon Signal on 12 GHz. CLIMPARA98, Ottawa, Vol. 208, No. 211.
[2] Characteristics of Precipitation for Propagation Modelling, Recommendation ITU-R P.837-4, ITU-R P Sers., ITU-R, Int. Telecomm. Union, Geneva, 2003.
[3] Salonen, E.T. and Poiares-Baptista, J.P.V. (1997) A New Global Rainfall Rate Model. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Antennas and Propagation (Pub N 14-176-436), 2, 182-185.
[4] Segal, B. (1986) The Influence of Raingauge Integration Time on Measured Rainfall-Intensity Distribution Functions. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 3, 662-671.
[5] Crane, R. and Dissanayake, A.W. (1997) ACTS Propagation Experiment: Attenuation Distribution Observations and Prediction Model Comparison. Proceedings of the IEEE, 85, 879-892.
[6] Dutton, E.J. (1984) Microwave Terrestrial Link Rain Attenuation Prediction Parameter Analysis. US Department of Communications, National Telecommunications and Information Administration (STIA) Tech. Rep., Volumes 84-148.
[7] Emiliani, L.D., Agudelo, J., Gutierrez, E., Restrepo, J. and Fradique-Mendez, C. (2004) Development of Rain-Attenuation and Rain Rate Maps for Satellite System Design in the Ku and Ka bands in Colombia. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 46, 54-68.
[8] Ajayi, G.O., Feng, S., Radicella, S.M. and Reddy, B.M. (1996) Handbook on Radio Propagation Related to Satellite Communications in Tropical and Subtropical Countries. ICTP, Trieste, 7-14.
[9] Moupfouma, F. (1985) Model of Rainfall-Rate Distribution for Radio System Design. IEEE Proceedings, 132, 39-43.
[10] Chebil, J. and Rahman, T.A. (1999) Development of 1 min Rain Rate Contour Maps for Microwave Applications in Malaysia Peninsula. Electronics Letters, 35, 1772-1774.
[11] Gunes, M., Gunes, F. and Dimiller, K. (1994) Development of a Climatic Map of Attenuation by Rainfall for Turkey. Proceedings of the 7th Mediterranean Electrotechnology Conference, 2, 383-386.
[12] Dutton, E.J. and Dougherty, H.T. (1979) Year-to-Year Variability of Rainfall for Microwave Applications in the USA. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 27, 829-832.
[13] Specific Attenuation Model for Rain for Use in Prediction Methods. Recommendation P.838-1, 2, ITU-R P Sers., ITU-R, Int. Telecomm. Union, Geneva, 1999.
[14] Crane, R.K. (1996) Electromagnetic Wave Propagation through Rain. Wiley Interscience, New York.
[15] Gallois, A.P., Hartigan, P.P. and Bock, A.M. (1989) A Comparison of Slant Path Attenuation Models Applied to the Selection of Satellite Beacon Receiver Sites. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 2, 271-275.
[16] Propagation Data and Prediction Methods Required for the Design of Earth-Space Telecommunications Systems. Recommendation P.618-8, ITU-R P Sers., ITU-R, Int. Telecomm. Union, Geneva, 1999.
[17] Watson, P.A., Sathiaseelan, V. and Potter, B. (1981) Development of a Climatic Map of Rainfall Attenuation for Europe, No. 300, 134. Post Graduate School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Rep.
[18] ITU-R Rec. P.618-8, Propagation Data and Prediction Methods Required for the Design of Earth-Space Telecommunication Systems. International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, April 2003.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.