An Exploratory Factor Analysis on Generating Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles from Malaysian Teacher Educators’ Perspectives


The purpose of this study was to develop and establish the validity and reliability of Teaching and Learning instrument to generate teaching and learning guiding principles. Participants consisted of 171 Malaysian teacher educators. The Teaching and Learning instrument is a 5-point Likert-scaled survey consisting of 67 statements and 6 subscales. The internal consistency using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for every subscale is greater than 0.700. For the overall instrument using the 67 items that comprised the six subscales, internal consistency reliability analysis revealed a Cronbach’s coefficient alpha of 0.977. Additionally, the varimax rotation was proceeded by maintaining six factors with a total variance contribution of 62.56 percent. Items with factor loading greater than 0.375 were retained. Finally, there were 41 items remaining. However, there were 26 items absent in the original constructs, thus the items were discarded because they were found inappropriate for representing new constructs. The factor analysis found that the teaching and learning guiding principles produced six factors: intellectual excitement (6 items), quality learning spaces (10 items), constructive alignment (8 items), international and culturally (10 items), climate of inquiry (4 items), and nurture good values (3 items).

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Adnan, M. , Masuwai, A. , Tajudin, N. and Rahman, N. (2015) An Exploratory Factor Analysis on Generating Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles from Malaysian Teacher Educators’ Perspectives. Creative Education, 6, 1245-1255. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.612123.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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