Antioxidant and Phenolic Content of Nuts, Oil Seeds, Milk and Milk Products Commonly Consumed in India


Food provides not only essential nutrients required for life, but also bioactive compounds usefull to maintan good health and disease prevention. Abundant epidemiological evidences suggest that consumption of food rich in antioxi-dants (non-nutritional components) can prevent degenerative diseases. A total of 26 commonly consumed nuts, oil seeds, edible oils, milk and milk products were chosen for the study. Considering the fact that antioxidant content (AOC) and phenolic contents (PC) of these foods was not established systematically in Indian context. Therefore, we have assessed and correlated the AOC and PC, an important antioxidant constituents of plant foods. AOC was assessed by DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) scavenging activity and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods and phenolic content (PC), using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Among the nuts and oil seeds arecanut had the highest phenolic and antioxidant content 10841, 4220341 mg/100g respectively. In milk, edible oils and sugars the values ranged from 336 -11674 mg/100g. Jaggery had the highest PC and AOC among the foods studied . Although AOC and PC showed wide variation among the foods, AOC was correlated significantly with PC. Indeed the ‘r’ value between PC and AOC (DPPH and FRAP) was 0.99 (p < 0.01) among the nuts and oil seeds, while in milk, milk products and sugars, the “r” values ranged from 0.93 and 0.99 (p < 0.01) respectively. The overall results indicate that the phenolic compounds may be significant contributors to the AOC of the foods studied.

Share and Cite:

D. Sreeramulu and M. Raghunath, "Antioxidant and Phenolic Content of Nuts, Oil Seeds, Milk and Milk Products Commonly Consumed in India," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 422-427. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.25059.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] K. E. Nikki, “Free Radical in the 1990s from in Vitro to in Vivo,” Free Radical Research, Vol. 33, 2001, pp. 693-704.
[2] P. P. Singh and P. Sharma, “Antioxidant Basket: Do Not Mix Apple and ORANGES,” Editorial Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2009, pp. 211-214. doi:10.1007/s12291-009-0040-z
[3] B. Halliwell, J. M. C. Gutteridgeand and C. E. Cross, “Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease: Where Are We Now?” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, Vol. 119, No. 6, 1992, pp. 598-620.
[4] P. Van’t Veer, M. C. Jansen, M. Kleark and F. J. Kok, “Fruits and Vegetables in the Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 103-107.
[5] G. H. Cao, E. Sofic and L. R. Prior, “Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and Common Vegetables,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 11, 1996, pp. 3426-431. doi:10.1021/jf9602535
[6] R. G. Takeoka and T. L. Dao, “Antioxidant Constituents of Almond Hulls,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 20, 2003, pp. 496-501.
[7] F. Shahidi and M. Naczk, “Phenolic Compounds in Grains. in Food Phenolics,” Source, Chemistry Effects Applications, Technomic Publishing Company Inc. Lancaster PA, 1995, pp. 3-39.
[8] S. Richfort and J. Panozzo, “Phytochemicals for Health, the Role of Pulses,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 20, 2007, pp. 7981-7994. doi:10.1021/jf071704w
[9] M. Dong, X. J. He and R. H. Lieu, “Phytochemicals of Black Bean Seed Coats; Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Their Antiproliferative and Antioxidative Activities,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 15, 2007, pp. 6044-6051. doi:10.1021/jf070706d
[10] P. Stratil, B. Klejdus and V. Kuban, “Determination of Total Content of Phenolic Compounds and Their Antioxidant Activity in Vegetables Evaluation of Spectrophotometric Methods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2006, pp. 607-616. doi:10.1021/jf052334j
[11] C. Vijya, K. Reddy, D. Sreeramulu and M. Raghunath, “Antioxidant Activity of Fresh and Dry Fruits Commonly Consumed in India,” Food Research International, Vol. 43, No. 1, January 2010, pp. 285-288. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.006
[12] R. P. Sing, K. N. Chidambara Murthy and G. K. Jayaprakash, “Studies on the Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Peel and Seed Extracts Using in vitro Models,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2002, pp. 81-86. doi:10.1021/jf010865b
[13] H. Zielinski and H. Kozlowska, “Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics in Selected Cereal Grains and Their Different Morphological Fractions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2008-2016. doi:10.1021/jf990619o
[14] B. Matthaus, “Antioxidant Activity of Extracts Obtained from Residues of Different Oil Seeds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 12, 2002, pp. 3444-3452. doi:10.1021/jf011440s
[15] I. Arcan and A. Yemenicioglu, “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Fresh and Dry Nuts with and without the Seed Coat,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 22, No. 3, May 2009, pp. 184-188.
[16] L. L. Yu, S. Haley, J. Perret, M. Harris, J. Wilson and M. Qian, “Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Wheat Extracts,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1619-1624. doi:10.1021/jf010964p
[17] H. Aoshima, H. Tsunoue, H. Koda and Y. Kiso, “Aging of Whiskey Increases 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Activity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 16, 2004, pp. 5240-5244. doi:10.1021/jf049817s
[18] F. F. Iris Benzie and J. J. Strain, “Ferric Reducing/Anti-Oxidant Power Assay: Direct Measure of Total Antioxidant Activity of Biological Fluids and Modified Version for Simultaneous Measurement of Total Antioxidant Power and Ascorbic Acid Concentration,” Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 299, 1999, pp. 15-27. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99005-5
[19] V. L. Singleton and J. A. Rossi, “Colorimetry of Total Phenols with Phosphomolybdic Phosphotungstic acid Reagents,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1965, pp. 144-158.
[20] M. Claudine, W. Gary, M. Christine and S. Augustin, “Bioavailability and Bioefficacy of Polyphenols in Humans: Review of 97 Bioavailability Studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2005, pp. 230-242.
[21] A. J. Vinson, X. H. Su, L. Zubik and P. Bose, “Phenol Antioxidant Quantity and Quality in Foods: Fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2001, pp. 5315-5321. doi:10.1021/jf0009293
[22] J. A. Vinson, Y. Hao, X. Su and L. zubik, “Phenol Antioxidant Quantity and Quality in Foods: Vegetables,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 9, 1998, pp. 3630-3634.
[23] U. S. Kadam, S. B. Ghosh, De. Strayo, P. Suprasanna, T. P. A. Devasagayam and V. A. Bapat, “Antioxidant Activity in Sugarcane Juice and Its Protective Role against Radiation Induced DNA Damage,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 106, No. 3, February 2008, pp. 1154-1160. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.066
[24] S. Nair, R. Nagar and R. Gupta, “Antioxidant Phenolics and Flavonoids in Common Indian Foods,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India (JAPI), Vol. 46, No. 8, 1998, pp. 708-710.
[25] D. Sreeramulu, C. V. Reddy and M. Raghunath, “Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Consumed Cereals, Millets, Pulses and Legumes in India,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Vol. 46, 2009, pp. 112-115.
[26] A. Luximon-Ramma, T. Bahorun, M. A. Soobrattee and I. Okezie, “Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Proanthocyanidin and Flavonoid Components in Extracts of Cassia Fistula,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 18, 2002, pp. 5042-5047. doi:10.1021/jf0201172
[27] D. Huang, B. Ou and R. L. Prior, “Review on AOA Methods: The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53 No. 6, 2005, pp. 1841-1856. doi:10.1021/jf030723c
[28] M. Ozgen, R. N. Reese, A. Z. Tulio Jr., J. C. Scheernens and A. R. Miller, “Modified 2,2-Azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) Method to Measure Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Small Fruits and Comparison to Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power(FRAP) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Methods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2006, pp. 1151-1157. doi:10.1021/jf051960d
[29] L. Bravo, “Polyphenols: Chemistry, Dietary Sources, Metabolism & Nutritional Significance,” Nutrition Review, Vol. 56, No. 11, November 1998, pp. 317-333.
[30] B. Payet, A. S. C. Sing and J. Smadja, “Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Cane Brown Sugers by ABTS and DPPH Radical Scavenging Assays: Determination of Their Polyphenolic and Volatile Constituents,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 26, 2005, pp. 10074-10079. doi:10.1021/jf0517703
[31] J. M. Duarte-Almeida, A. V. Novoa, A. F. Linares, F. M. Lrjolo and M. I. Genovese, “Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Sugar Cane Juice (Saccharum Officinarum L),” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 61, No. 4, 2006, pp. 187-192. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0032-6
[32] M. Akbulut, M. M. Ozcan and H. Coklar, “Evalution of Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Mineral Contents and Some Physicochemical Properties of Several Pine Honeys Collected from Western Anatolia,” International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 60, No. 7, 2009, pp. 577-589. doi:10.1080/09637480801892486
[33] M. P. Kahkonen, A. I. Hopia, H. J. Vuorela, J.-P. Rauha, K. Pihlaja, T. S. Kujala and M. Heinonen, “Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 10, 1999, pp. 3954-3962. doi:10.1021/jf990146l
[34] U. Imeh and S. Khokhar, “Distribution of Conjugated and Free Phenols in Fruits: Antioxidant Activity and Cultivar Variations,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 22, 2002, pp. 6301-6306. doi:10.1021/jf020342j

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.