Reinforcement of Lignin-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive with Nano-Crystalline Cellulose (NCC): Curing Behavior and Bonding Property of Plywood


The curing behavior of lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resin with different contents of nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different heating rates (5, 10 and 20°C/min) and the bonding property was evaluated by the wet shear strength and wood failure of two-ply plywood panels after soaking in water (48 hours at room temperature and followed by 1-hour boiling). The test results indicated that the NCC content had little influence on the peak temperature, activation energy and the total heat of reaction of LPF resin at 5 and 10°C/min. But at 20°C/min, LPF0.00% (LPF resin without NCC) showed the highest total heat of reaction, while LPF0.25% (LPF resin containing 0.25% NCC content) and LPF0.50% (LPF resin containing 0.50% NCC content) gave the lowest value. The wet shear strength was affected by the NCC content to a certain extent. With regard to the results of one-way analysis of variance, the bonding quality could be improved by NCC and the optimum NCC content ranged from 0.25% to 0.50%. The wood failure was also affected by the NCC content, but the trend with respect to NCC content was not clear.

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Liu, Z. , Zhang, Y. , Wang, X. and Rodrigue, D. (2015) Reinforcement of Lignin-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive with Nano-Crystalline Cellulose (NCC): Curing Behavior and Bonding Property of Plywood. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 567-575. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.66060.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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