Optimization of Culture Conditions for Production of Bioactive Metabolites by Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Soil


The current work was carried out under a screening program targeted at isolation of bioactive Streptomyces species from soil samples. A total of 54 Streptomyces species were isolated from soil samples, out of which 4 isolates were found to be promising. These isolates were identified as Streptomyces spectabilis, Streptomyces purpurascens, Streptomyces coeruleorubidus and Streptomyces lavendofoliae and their sequences have been deposited in the GenBank. The influence of culture conditions including, incubation time, incubation temperature, initial pH and different carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and bioactive compound formation was investigated. Isolate R1, identified as Streptomyces spectabilis, showed maximum bioactive metabolite production with cellobiose and peptone as the carbon and nitrogen sources, on the 5th day at pH 5 at 30. The optimum conditions for production by isolate R3, identified as Streptomyces purpurascens, were observed to be starch and casein as the carbon and nitrogen sources, pH 7, temperature 30 and an incubation period of eight days. For isolate R5, identified as Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, maximal production resulted on the sixth day at pH 6 and temperature of 35 with mannitol and JBM. Isolate Y8, identified as Streptomyces lavendofoliae, was found to produce high levels of bioactive metabolites in the medium supplemented with starch and peptone on the 10th day at pH 7 and at an incubation temperature of 30. The four strains tested here behaved differently, each one requiring specific conditions for maximum growth as well as bioactive metabolite production.

Share and Cite:

Bundale, S. , Begde, D. , Nashikkar, N. , Kadam, T. and Upadhyay, A. (2015) Optimization of Culture Conditions for Production of Bioactive Metabolites by Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Soil. Advances in Microbiology, 5, 441-451. doi: 10.4236/aim.2015.56045.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Abdelfattah, M.S. (2009) Mansoquinone: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of New Antibacterial Aromatic Polyketides from Terrestrial Streptomyces Sp. Eg5. Natural Product Research, 23, 212-218.
[2] Arifuzzaman, M., Khatun, M. and Rahman, H. (2010) Isolation and Screening of Actinomycetes from Sundarbans Soil for Antibacterial Activity. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 4615-4619.
[3] Holkar, S.K., Begde, D.N., Nashikkar, N.N., Kadam, T.A. and Upadhyay, A.A. (2013) Rhodomycin Analogues from Streptomyces purpurascens: Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities. SpringerPlus, 2, 93.
[4] Saadoun, I. and Gharaibeh, R. (2003) The Streptomyces Flora of Badia Region of Jordan and Its Potential as a Source of Antibiotics Active against Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Journal of Arid Environments, 53, 365-371.
[5] Olano, C., Méndez, C. and Salas, J. (2009) Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes. Marine Drugs, 7, 210-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md7020210
[6] Schneemann, I., Kajahn, I., Ohlendorf, B., Zinecker, H., Erhard, A., Nagel, K. and Imhoff, J.F. (2010) Mayamycin, a Cytotoxic Polyketide from a Streptomyces Strain Isolated from the Marine Sponge Halichondria panicea. Journal of Natural Products, 73, 1309-1312.
[7] Augustine, S.K., Bhavsar, S.P. and Kapadnis, B.P. (2005) A Non-Polyene Antifungal Antibiotic from Streptomyces Albidoflavus PU 23. Journal of Biosciences, 30, 201-211.
[8] Waksman, S.A. (1961) Classification, Identification and Description of Genera and Species. The Actinomycetes, 2.
[9] Gao, H., Liu, M., Liu, J., Dai, H., Zhou, X., Liu, X., et al. (2009) Medium Optimization for the Production of Avermectin B1a by Streptomyces Avermitilis 14-12A Using Response Surface Methodology. Bioresource Technology, 100, 4012-4016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.013
[10] Barratt, E.M. and Oliver, S.G. (1994) The Effects of Nutrient Limitation on the Synthesis of Stress Proteins in Streptomyces Lividans. Biotechnology Letters, 16, 1231-1234.
[11] Reddy, N.G., Ramakrishna, D. and Rajagopal, S. (2011) Optimization of Culture Conditions of Streptomyces rochei (MTCC 10109) for the Production of Antimicrobial Metabolites. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 13, 21-29.
[12] Lounès, A., Lebrihi, A., Benslimane, C., Lefebvre, G. and Germain, P. (1996) Regulation of Spiramycin Synthesis in Streptomyces ambofaciens: Effects of Glucose and Inorganic Phosphate. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 45, 204-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002530050671
[13] Usha Kiranmayi, M., Sudhakar, P., Sreenivasulu, K. and Vijayalakshmi, M. (2011) Optimization of Culturing Conditions for Improved Production of Bioactive Metabolites by Pseudonocardia sp. VUK-10. Mycobiology, 39, 174-181.
[14] Ismet, A., Vikineswary, S., Paramaswari, S., Wong, W.H., Ward, A., Seki, T., et al. (2004) Production and Chemical Characterization of Antifungal Metabolites from Micromonospora sp. M39 Isolated from Mangrove Rhizosphere Soil. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20, 523-528.
[15] Borodina, I., Siebring, J., Zhang, J., Smith, C.P., van Keulen, G., Dijkhuizen, L. and Nielsen, J. (2008) Antibiotic Overproduction in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Mediated by Phosphofructokinase Deletion. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283, 25186-25199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M803105200
[16] Saadoun, I. and Muhana, A. (2008) Optimal Production Conditions, Extraction, Partial Purification and Characterization of Inhibitory Compound(s) Produced by Streptomyces Ds-104 Isolate against Multi-Drug Resistant Candida albicans. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 2, 402-432.
[17] Oskay, M. (2011) Effects of Some Environmental Conditions on Biomass and Antimicrobial Metabolite Production by Streptomyces sp., KGG32. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13, 317-324.
[18] Dekleva, M.L., Titus, J.A. and Strohl, W.R. (1985) Nutrient Effects on Anthracycline Production by Streptomyces peucetius in a Defined Medium. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 31, 287-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/m85-053
[19] Huck, T.A., Porter, N. and Bushell, M.E. (1991) Positive Selection of Antibiotic-Producing Soil Isolates. Journal of General Microbiology, 137, 2321-2329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00221287-137-10-2321
[20] Iwai, Y. and Omura, S. (1982) Culture Conditions for Screening of New Antibiotics. The Journal of Antibiotics, 35, 123-141.
[21] Bertasso, M., Holzenkampfer, M., Zeeck, A., Antoniac, F.D. and Fiedler, H.P. (2004) Bagremycins Are New Para-Coumaric Acid Derived Antibiotics Produced by Streptomyces sp. Tü 4128. In: Jonas, R., Pandey, A. and Tharun, G., Eds., Biotechnological Advances and Applications in Bioconversion of Renewable Raw Materials, GBF, Germany, 86-91.
[22] Jonsbu, E., McIntyre, M. and Nielsen, J. (2002) The Influence of Carbon Sources and Morphology on Nystatin Production by Streptomyces noursei. Journal of Biotechnology, 95, 133-144.
[23] Drew, S. and Demain, A. (1977) Effect of Primary Metabolites on Secondary Metabolism. Annual Review of Microbiology, 31, 343-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.mi.31.100177.002015
[24] El-Naggar, M.Y., Hassan, M.A., Said, W.Y. and El-Aassar, S.A. (2003) Effect of Support Materials on Antibiotic MSW2000 Production by Immobilized Streptomyces Violates. The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 49, 235-243.
[25] Osman, M.E., Khattab, O.H., Zaghlol, G.M. and Abd El-Hameed, R.M. (2011) Optimization of Some Physical and Chemical Factors for Lovastatin Productivity by Local Strain of Aspergillus terreus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5, 718-732.
[26] Narayana, K. and Vijayalakshmi, M. (2008) Optimization of Antimicrobial Metabolites Production by Streptomyces albidoflavus. Research Journal of Pharmacology, 2, 4-7.
[27] Wu, J.Y., Huang, J.W., Shih, H.D., Lin, W.C. and Liu, Y.C. (2008) Optimization of Cultivation Conditions for Fungichromin Production from Streptomyces padanus PMS-702. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers, 39, 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcice.2007.11.006
[28] Praveen, V., Tripathi, C.K.M., Bihari, V. and Srivastava, S.C. (2008) Production of Actinomycin-D by the Mutant of a New Isolate of Streptomyces sindenensis. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 39, 689-692.
[29] Chattopadhyay, D. and Sen, S. (1997) Optimisation of Cultural Conditions for Antifungal Antibiotic Accumulation by Streptomyces rochei G164. Hindustan Antibiotics Bulletin, 39, 64-71.
[30] Sejiny, M. (1991) Growth Phases of Some Antibiotics Producing Streptomyces and Their Identification. Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Science, 3, 21-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.4197/sci.3-1.2
[31] Guimaraes, L.M., Furlan, R.L., Garrido, L.M., Ventura, A., Padilla, G. and Facciotti, M.C. (2004) Effect of pH on the Production of the Antitumor Antibiotic Retamycin by Streptomyces olindensis. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 40, 107-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BA20030166
[32] Datta, A.R. and Kothary, M.H. (1993) Effects of Glucose, Growth Temperature, and pH on Listeriolysin O Production in Listeria monocytogenes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59, 3495-3497.
[33] Sole, M., Francia, A., Rius, N. and Loren, J.G. (1997) The Role of pH in the “Glucose Effect” on Prodigiosin Production by Non-Proliferating Cells of Serratia marcescens. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 25, 81-84.
[34] Gogoi, D., Deka Boruah, H., Saikia, R. and Bora, T. (2008) Optimization of Process Parameters for Improved Production of Bioactive Metabolite by a Novel Endophytic Fungus Fusarium sp. DF2 Isolated from Taxus wallichiana of North East India. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, 79-87.
[35] Singh, V., Khan, M., Khan, S. and Tripathi, C.K.M. (2009) Optimization of Actinomycin V Production by Streptomyces triostinicus Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 82, 379-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1828-0
[36] Hassan, M.A., El-Naggar, M.Y. and Said, W.Y. (2004) Physiological Factors Affecting the Production of an Antimicrobial Substance by Streptomyces violatus in Batch Cultures. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 3, 1-10.
[37] El-Mehalawy, A.A., Abd-Allah, N.A., Mohamed, R.M. and Abu-Shady, M.R. (2005) Actinomycetes Antagonizing Plant and Human Pathogenic Fungi. II. Factors Affecting Antifungal Production and Chemical Characterization of the Active Components. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 7, 188-196.
[38] Ripa, F.A., Nikkon, F., Zaman, S. and Khondkar, P. (2009) Optimal Conditions for Antimicrobial Metabolites Production from a New Streptomyces sp. RUPA-08PR Isolated from Bangladeshi Soil. Mycobiology, 37, 211-214.
[39] Majumdar, M. and Majumdar, S. (1965) Effects of Minerals on Neomycin Production by Streptomyces fradiae. Applied Microbiology, 13, 190-193.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.