Share This Article:

Effect of Surface Porosity on Tribological Properties of Sintered Pure Al and Al 6061

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:5085KB) PP. 549-566
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.66059    3,607 Downloads   4,387 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Due to light weight, high specific strength, high corrosion resistance and good heat transfer ability, aluminium alloys are becoming attractive for critical structural applications. These alloys can be manufactured using powder metallurgy techniques in which porosity is a common characteristic. The presence of pores is responsible for decreasing effective load bearing cross sectional area and inducing stress concentration sites for strain localization and damage, decreasing both strength and ductility. The present study aims to establish a better understanding of the relationship between surface porosity and corresponding wear behavior. In this study, porous specimens were produced using powder metallurgy technique and the extent of wear damage and the type of wear was investigated under low load range of 1.5 - 5 N against AISI 52100 bearing steel ball using a reciprocating ball-on-flat configuration and frequency of 10 Hz. Scanning electron microscopy of the wear tracks and wear debris was carried out to understand wear mechanisms. This study revealed that due to combined effect of high stress intensity and subsurface cracking, wear rate increases with increasing porosity content. The friction and wear behavior of pure Al and Al 6061 as a function of porosity content can be attributed to their hardness and corresponding wear mechanism.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sinha, A. and Farhat, Z. (2015) Effect of Surface Porosity on Tribological Properties of Sintered Pure Al and Al 6061. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 549-566. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.66059.

References

[1] Yust, C.S. (1985) Tribology and Wear. International Metals Reviews, 30, 141-154.
[2] Saka, N., Eleiche, A.M. and Suh, N.P. (1977) Wear of Metals at High Sliding Speeds. Wear, 44, 109-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(77)90089-8
[3] Prasad, B.K., Venkateswarlu, K., Modi, O.P., Jha, A.K., Das, S., Dasgupta, R. and Yegneswaran, A.H. (1998) Sliding Wear Behavior of Some Al-Si Alloys: Role of Shape and Size of Si Particles and Test Conditions. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 29, 2747-2752.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-998-0315-7
[4] Shivanath, R., Sengupta, P.K. and Eyre, T.S. (1977) Wear of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys. The British Foundrymen, 70, 349.
[5] Yassen, R.S. and Dwarakadasa, E.S. (1983) Wear of Aluminium under Dry Sliding Conditions. Wear, 84, 375-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(83)90277-6
[6] Bocchini, G.F. (1986) The Influence of Porosity on the Characteristics of Sintered Materials. International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, 22, 185-202.
[7] Proudhon, H., Savkova, J., Basseville , S., Guipont, V., Jeandin, M. and Cailletaud, G. (2014) Experimental and Numerical Wear Studies of Porous Reactive Plasma Sprayed Ti-6Al-4V/TiN Composite Coating. Wear, 311, 159-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2014.01.012
[8] Zhang, L., Qu, X.-H., Duan, B-H., He, X.-B. and Qin, M.-L. (2008) Effect of Porosity on Wear Resistance of SiCp/Cu Composites Prepared by Pressureless Infiltration. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 18, 1076-1082.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(08)60184-3
[9] Chen, Q., Li, D. and Cook, B. (2009) Is Porosity Always Detrimental to the Wear Resistance of Materials? A Computational Study on the Effect of Porosity on Erosive Wear of TiC/Cu Composites. Wear, 267, 1153-1159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2008.12.058
[10] Simchi, A. and Danninger, H. (2004) Effects of Porosity on Delamination Wear Behaviour of Sintered Plain Iron. Powder Metallurgy, 47, 73-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/003258904225015545
[11] Dubrujeaud, B., Vardavoulias, M. and Jeandin, M. (1994) The Role of Porosity in the Dry Sliding Wear of a Sintered Ferrous Alloy. Wear, 174, 155-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(94)90097-3
[12] Li, D.Y. and Luo, Y.C. (2001) Effects of TiN Nano-Particles on Porosity and Wear Behavior of TiC/TiNi Tribo Composite. Journal of Materials Science Letters, 20, 2249-2252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017909723229
[13] Hamid, A.A., Ghosh, P., Jain, S. and Ray, S. (2006) Influence of Particle Content and Porosity on the Wear Behaviour of Cast in Situ Al(Mn)-Al2O3(MnO2) Composite. Wear, 260, 368-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2005.02.120
[14] Sarikaya, O. (2005) Effect of Some Parameters on Microstructure and Hardness of Alumina Coatings Prepared by the Air Plasma Spraying Process. Surface & Coatings Technology, 190, 388-393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.02.007
[15] Raghukiran, N. and Kumar, R. (2013) Processing and Dry Sliding Wear Performance of Spray Deposited Hyper- Eutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 213, 401-410.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.10.007
[16] Kanchanomaia, C., Saengwichian, B. and Manonukul, A. (2013) Delamination Wear of Metal Injection Moulded 316L Stainless Steel. Wear, 267, 1665-1672.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2009.06.019
[17] Tekmen, C., Ozdemir, I., Cocen, U. and Onel, K. (2003) The Mechanical Response of Al-Si-Mg/SiCp Composite: Influence of Porosity. Materials Science and Engineering A, 360, 365-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(03)00461-1
[18] Danninger, H., Jangg, G., Weiss, B. and Stickler, R. (1993) Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Iron. Part I. Basic Considerations and Review of Literature. Powder Metallurgy International, 25, 111-117.
[19] Bergmark, A., Alzati, L. and Persson, U. (2002) Crack Initiation and Crack Propagation in Copper Powder Mixed PM Steel. Powder Metallurgy Progress, 2, 222-230.
[20] Gerard, D.A. and Koss, D.A. (1990) Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation: Modeling the Effect of Porosity. International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, 26, 337-343.
[21] Sahin, Y. (2003) Preparation and Some Properties of SiC Particle Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Composites. Materials and Design, 24, 671-679.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(03)00156-0
[22] Sahin, Y. and Acilar, M. (2003) Production and Properties of SiCp-Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Composites. Composites Part A, 34, 709-718.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(03)00142-8
[23] Yih, P. and Chung, D.D.L. (1997) Titanium Diboride Copper-Matrix Composites. Journal of Materials Science, 32, 1703-1709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018515714687
[24] Ray, S., Fishman, S.G. and Dhingra, A.K. (1988) Porosity in Foundry Composites Prepared by Vortex Method. Proceedings of the Cast Reinforced Metal Composites, Chicago, 24-30 September 1988, 77-86.
[25] Mathew, B.A. and Mastromatteo, R. (2002) Metal Injection Moulding for Automotive Applications. Metal Powder Report, 57, 20-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0657(02)85078-0
[26] Bocchini, G.F. (1986) Influence of Porosity on the Characteristics of Sintered Materials. International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, 22, 185-188.
[27] Klar, E. and Samal, P.K. (1994) Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steels. In: Eisen, W.B. and German, R.M., Eds., ASM Handbook, Powder Metal Technologies and Applications, Volume 7, ASM International, Ohio, 474-482.
[28] Deshpande, P. and Lin, R. (2006) Wear Resistance of WC Particle Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites and the Effect of Porosity. Materials Science and Engineering A, 418, 137-145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.11.036
[29] Hardin, R.A. and Beckermann, C. (2007) Effect of Porosity on the Stiffness of Cast Steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 12, 2992-3006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-007-9390-4
[30] Suh, N.P. (1977) An Overview of the Delamination Theory of Wear. Wear, 44, 1-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(77)90081-3
[31] Vardavoulias, M., Jouanny-Tresy, C. and Jeandin, M. (1993) Sliding-Wear Behaviour of Ceramic Particle-Reinforced High-Speed Steel Obtained by Powder Metallurgy. Wear, 165, 141-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(93)90329-K
[32] Gui, M., Kang, S.B. and Lee, J.M. (2000) Influence of Porosity on Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour in Spray Deposited Al-6Cu-Mn/SiCp Composite. Materials Science and Engineering A, 293, 146-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(00)01052-2
[33] Bertilsson, I., Karlsson, B. and Wasen, J. (1994) Fatigue Properties of Sintered Steels. Proceedings of the International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Toronto, 8-11 May 1994, 19-32.
[34] Islam, M.A. and Farhat, Z.N. (2011) Effect of Porosity on Dry Sliding Wear of Al-Si Alloys. Tribology International, 44, 498-504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2010.12.007
[35] Oliver, W.C. and Pharr, G.M. (1992) Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments. Journal of Materials Research, 7, 1564-1583.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1992.1564
[36] Fleck, N.A., Otoyo, H. and Needleman, A. (1992) Indentation on Porous Solids. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 29, 1613-1636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7683(92)90012-I
[37] Jang, B.K. and Matsubara, H. (2005) Influence of Porosity on Hardness and Young’s Modulus of Nanoporous EB-PVD TBCs by Nanoindentation. Materials Letters, 59, 3462-3466.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2005.06.014
[38] Chen, X., Xiang, Y. and Vlassak, J.J. (2006) Novel Technique for Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Porous Materials by Nanoindentation. Journal of Materials Research, 21, 715-724.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2006.0088
[39] Ling, Z., Wang, X. and Ma, J. (2008) The Response of Porous Al2O3 Probed to Nanoindentation. Materials Science and Engineering A, 483-484, 285-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.10.195
[40] Sinha, S.K., Reddy, S.U. and Gupta, M. (2006) Scratch Hardness and Mechanical Property Correlation for Mg/SiC and Mg/SiC/Ti Metal-Matrix Composites. Tribology International, 39, 184-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2005.04.017
[41] ASTM G171-03(2009) e2, Standard Test Method for Scratch Hardness of Materials Using a Diamond Stylus. ASTM Standard Designation.
[42] Yan, C. and Zhang, L. (1995) Single-Point Scratching of 6061 Al Alloy Reinforced by Different Ceramics Particles. Applied Composite Materials, 1, 431-447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00706503
[43] Farokhzadeh, K., Edrisy, A., Pigott, G. and Lidster, P. (2013) Scratch Resistance Analysis of Plasma-Nitrided Ti-6Al- 4V Alloy. Wear, 302, 845-853.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2013.01.070
[44] Gyimah, G.K., Chen, D. and Huang, P. (2013) Dry Sliding Studies of Porosity on Sintered Cu-Based Brake Materials. Transaction on Control and Mechanical Systems, 2, 219-224.
[45] Dwivedi, D.K. (2010) Adhesive Wear Behaviour of Cast Aluminium-Silicon Alloys: Overview. Materials and Design, 31, 2517-2531.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2009.11.038
[46] Elmadagli, M., Perry, T. and Alpas, A.T. (2007) A Parametric Study of the Relationship between Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Al-Si Alloys. Wear, 262, 79-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2006.03.043
[47] Chowdhury, M.A., Khalil, M.K., Nuruzzaman, D.M. and Rahaman, M.L. (2011) The Effect of Sliding Speed and Normal Load on Friction and Wear Property of Aluminum. International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, 11, 53-57.
[48] Wei, M.X., Chen, K.M., Wang, S.Q. and Cui, X.H. (2011) Analysis for Wear Behaviors of Oxidative Wear. Tribology Letters, 42, 1-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11249-010-9741-y
[49] Al-Samarai, R.A., Haftirman, Ahmad, K.R. and Al-Douri, Y. (2012) Effect of Load and Sliding Speed on Wear and Friction of Aluminum-Silicon Casting Alloy. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2, 3-6.
[50] Kumar, S. and Balasubramanian, V. (2010) Effect of Reinforcement Size and Volume Fraction on the Abrasive Wear Behaviour of AA7075 Al/SiCp P/M Composites—A Statistical Analysis. Tribology International, 43, 414-422.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2009.07.003
[51] Corrochanoa, J., Walker, J.C., Lieblich, M., Ibanez, J. and Rainforth, W.M. (2011) Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Powder Metallurgy Al-Mg-Si Alloy-MoSi2 Composites and the Relationship with the Microstructure. Wear, 270, 658- 665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2011.01.029
[52] Bermudez, M.D., Martinez-Nicolas, G., Carrion, F.J., Martinez-Mateo, I., Rodriguez, J.A. and Herrera, E.J. (2001) Dry and Lubricated Wear Resistance of Mechanically-Alloyed Aluminium-Base Sintered Composites. Wear, 248, 178-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00553-6
[53] Yasmin, T., Khalid, A.A. and Haque, M.M. (2004) Tribological (Wear) Properties of Aluminum-Silicon Eutectic Base Alloy under Dry Sliding Condition. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 153-154, 833-838.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.147
[54] Hamn, M., Talib, I.A. and Daud, A.R. (1996) Effect of Element Additions on Wear Property of Eutectic Aluminium-Silicon Alloys. Wear, 194, 54-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(95)06707-8
[55] Casellas, D., Beltran, A., Prado, J.M., Larson, A. and Romero, A. (2004) Microstructural Effects on the Dry Wear Resistance of Powder Metallurgy Al-Si Alloys. Wear, 257, 730-739.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2004.03.011
[56] Sharifi, E.M. and Karimzadeh, F. (2011) Wear Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Hybrid Nanocomposites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy. Wear, 271, 1072-1079.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2011.05.015
[57] Rahimian, M., Parvin, N. and Ehsani, N. (2011) The Effect of Production Parameters on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Powder Metallurgy Al-Al2O3 Composite. Materials and Design, 32, 1031-1038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.07.016
[58] Ravindran, P., Manisekar, K., Rathika, P. and Narayanasamy, P. (2013) Tribological Properties of Powder Metallurgy— Processed Aluminium Self Lubricating Hybrid Composites with SiC Additions. Materials and Design, 45, 561-570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.09.015
[59] Yalcin, B. (2009) Effect of Porosity on the Mechanical Properties and Wear Performance of 2% Copper Reinforced Sintered Steel Used in Shock Absorber Piston Production. Journal of Material Science and Technology, 25, 577-582.
[60] Islam, M.A. and Farhat, Z.N. (2011) The Influence of Porosity and Hot Isostatic Pressing Treatment on Wear Charac- teristics of Cast and P/M Aluminum Alloys. Wear, 271, 1594-1601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2011.01.037

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.