Applications of Potassium Permanganate in the Oxidative Degradation of Trichloroethylene


The scope of this study was to determine techniques to remediate trichloroethylene contamination under different environmental conditions, media and in co-existence with chromium. The specific objectives were focused on the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in soil and aqueous media using both unmodified KMnO4 particles and poly (methyl methacrylate), PMMA encapsulated KMnO4 in the presence and absence of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI). Molar ratios (p-values) of KMnO4 to TCE were used as a determining factor in the TCE oxidation process. p-values of 2, 5 and 10 were investigated in aqueous media and an approximately 0.5 M-1·s-1 rate constant was obtained using unmodified KMnO4 in aqueous system. The extent of oxidation did not change with TCE concentration. In soil system, TCE oxidation requires a large amount of KMnO4 to produce similar results as in aqueous system. pH experiments indicate that except at high alkaline condition, pH does not impact the extent of TCE oxidation. Also, the presence of Cr(VI) did not hinder TCE oxidation by KMnO4. Using controlled release application, the rate of TCE oxidation was reduced by PMMA encapsulated KMnO4. Comparative study indicated an expectedly slow rate of TCE degradation using modified KMnO4 but similar overall extent of oxidation for both modified and unmodified KMnO4. The application of the encapsulated matrix yielded 88% ± 3% TCE oxidation and a simultaneous 81% ± 2.1% Cr(VI) reduction by ferrous ion in the same system.

Share and Cite:

Ighere, J. , Honjoya, K. and Chawla, R. (2015) Applications of Potassium Permanganate in the Oxidative Degradation of Trichloroethylene. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 3, 16-27. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.37003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Huang, K.C., Hoag, G.E., Chheda, P., Woody, B.A. and Dobbs, G.M. (1999) Kinetic Study of the Oxidation of Trichloroethylene by Potassium Permanganate. Environmental Engineering Science, 16, 265-274.
[2] Kirschling, T.L., Gregory, K.B., Minkley, E.G., Lowry, G.V. and Tilton, R.D. (2010) Impact of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron on Geochemistry and Microbial Populations in trichloroethylene Contaminated Aquifer Materials. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 3474-3480.
[3] Crimi, M.L. and Siegrist, R.L. (2005) Factors Affecting Effectiveness and Efficiency of DNAPL Destruction Using Potassium Permanganate and Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide. Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE), 131, 1724-1732.
[4] Jeong, H.Y. and Hayes, K.M. (2007) Reductive Dechlorination Tetrachloroethylene by Mackinawite (FeS) in the Presence of Metals: Reaction Rates. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 6390-6396.
[5] Lee, W. (2004) Removal of Trichloroethylene in Reduced Soil Columns. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 113, 175-180.
[6] Apte, A.M., Tare, V. and Bose, P. (2006) Extent of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) under Various Conditions Pertaining to Natural Environment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 128, 164-174.
[7] Huang, K.C., Hoag, G.E., Chheda, P., Woody, B.A. and Dobbs, G.M. (2000) A Pilot Scale Study of Oxidation of Trichloroethylene by Sodium Permanganate. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, 145-152.
[8] Yuan, B., Chen, Y. and Fu, M.-L. (2012) Degradation Efficiencies and Mechanisms of Trichloroethylene (TCE) by Controlled-Release Permanganate (CRP) Oxidation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 192, 276-283.
[9] Singh, N. and Lee, D.G. (2001) Permangante: A Green and Versatile Industrial Oxidant. Organic Process Research and Development, 5, 599-603.
[10] Kao, C.D., Huang, K.D., Wang, J.Y., Chena, T.Y. and Chien, H.Y. (2008) Application of Potassium Permanganate as an Oxidant for in Situ Oxidation of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Groundwater: A Laboratory and Kinetics Study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153, 919-927.
[11] Seol, Y. and Schwartz, F.W. (2000) Phase-Transfer Catalysis Applied to the Oxidation of Nonaqueous Phase Trichloroethylene by Potassium Permanganate. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 44, 185-201.
[12] Hood, E.D., Thomson, N.R., Grossi, D. and Farquhar, G.J. (2000) Experimental Determination of the Kinetic Rate Law for the Oxidation of Perchloroethylene by Potassium Permanganate. Chemosphere, 40, 1383-1388.
[13] Freedman, F and Kappos, J.C. (1985) Permanganate ion Oxidations: 15. Additional Evidences of Formation of Soluble (Colloidal) Manganese Dioxide during the Permanganate Ion Oxidation of Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds in Phosphate-Buffered solutions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 107, 6628-6633.
[14] Huang, K.-C., Hoag, G.E., Chheda, P., Woody, B.A. and Dobbs, G.M. (2002) Chemical Oxidation of Trichloroethylene with Potassium Permanganate in a Porous Medium. Advances in Environmental Research, 7, 217-229.
[15] Yan, Y.E. and Schwartz, F.W. (2000) Kinetics and Mechanisms for TCE Oxidation by Permanganate. Environmental Science & Technology, 34, 2535-2541.
[16] Yan, Y.E. and Schwartz, F.W. (1999) Oxidative Degradation and Kinetics of Chlorinated Ethylenes by Potassium Permanganate. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 37, 343-365.
[17] Urynowicz, M.A. (2008) In Situ Chemical Oxidation with Permanganate: Assessing the Competitive Interactions between Target and Nontarget Compounds. Soil & Sediment Contamination, 17, 53-62.
[18] Kang, N., Hua, I., Suresh, P. and Rao, C. (2004) Production and Characterization of Encapsulated Potassium Permanganate for Sustained Release as an in Situ Oxidant. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 5187-5193.
[19] Huang, K., Hoag, G.E., Chheda, P., Woody, B.A. and Dobbs, G.M. (2001) Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethenes by Potassium Permanganate: A Kinetics Study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 87, 155-169.
[20] Urynowicz, M.A. and Siegrist, R.L. (2005) Interphase Mass Transfer during Chemical Oxidation of TCE DNAPL in an Aqueous System. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 80, 93-106.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.