} } }; xhrj.open('POST', encodeURI(sUrl), bAsync); xhrj.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'); xhrj.send(sArgs); }, get: function (sUrl, bAsync, fCallBack, errmsg) { var xhrj = this.init(); xhrj.onreadystatechange = function () { if (xhrj.readyState == 4) { if (xhrj.responseText) { if (fCallBack.constructor == Function) { fCallBack(xhrj); } } else { } } }; xhrj.open('GET', encodeURI(sUrl), bAsync); xhrj.send('Null'); } } function RndNum(n) { var rnd = ""; for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) rnd += Math.floor(Math.random() * 10); return rnd; } function SetNum(item) { var url = "//www.scirp.org/journal/senddownloadnum.aspx"; var args = "paperid=" + item; url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 3000); } function show(url) { var callback = function (xhrj) { } ajaxj.get(url, true, callback, "try"); } // function SetNumTwo(item) { // alert("jinlia"); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + item + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl="+downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // //// window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 500); // } // function pdfdownloadjudge() { // $("a").each(function(index) { // var rel = $(this).attr("rel"); // if (rel == "true") { // $(this).removeAttr("onclick"); // $(this).attr("href","#"); // //$(this).bind('click', function() { SetNumTwo(56940)}); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + 56940 + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl=" + downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // // $(this).bind('click', function() { ShowTwo(url)}); // } // }); // } // //获取下载pdf注册的cookie // function getcookie() { // var cookieName = "pdfddcookie"; // var cookieValue = null; //返回cookie的value值 // if (document.cookie != null && document.cookie != '') { // var cookies = document.cookie.split(';'); //将获得的所有cookie切割成数组 // for (var i = 0; i < cookies.length; i++) { // var cookie = cookies[i]; //得到某下标的cookies数组 // if (cookie.substring(0, cookieName.length + 2).trim() == cookieName.trim() + "=") {//如果存在该cookie的话就将cookie的值拿出来 // cookieValue = cookie.substring(cookieName.length + 2, cookie.length); // break // } // } // } // if (cookieValue != "" && cookieValue != null) {//如果存在指定的cookie值 // return false; // } // else { // // return true; // } // } // function ShowTwo(webUrl){ // alert("22"); // $.funkyUI({url:webUrl,css:{width:"600",height:"500"}}); // } //window.onload = pdfdownloadjudge;
OJMM> Vol.5 No.2, June 2015
Share This Article:
Cite This Paper >>

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii in a Teaching Hospital: A Two-Year Observation

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:365KB) PP. 85-89
DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.52010    2,860 Downloads   3,513 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment
Cucunawangsih  1, Veronica Wiwing1, Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito2

Affiliation(s)

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of PelitaHarapan, Tangerang, Indonesia.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of PelitaHarapan, Tangerang, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii (A. baumanii) caused hospital acquired infection, typically in critical-ill patients with medical devices. This is a retrospective descriptive study on epidemiology and microbiology data to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MDR-Acinetobacter baumanii isolates from a teaching hospital in Tangerang, Indonesia from Januari 2013 to December 2014. A total of 84 A. baumanii were collected. Patients suffering from respiratory tract infection had the highest number (41.7%) of A. baumanii isolate. There were 39 (46.6%) patients admitted in critical care. A. baumanii isolates in this study mostly were multidrug-resistant organisms with low susceptibility level to 11 antibiotic tested, 44% - 69% in 2013 and 26% - 67% in 2014. A high susceptibility level was observed to amikacin (80% and 79% in 2013, 2014 consecutively) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73% and 72% in 2013, 2014 consecutively). A. baumanii is a hospital acquired pathogen in critically-ill patients. The susceptibility pattern of this study result showed MDR organism. There was a sharp decrease of susceptibility in all antibiotics studied from 2013 to 2014 except amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

KEYWORDS

Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Amikacin

Cite this paper

 , C. , Wiwing, V. and Lugito, N. (2015) Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii in a Teaching Hospital: A Two-Year Observation. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 5, 85-89. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.52010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Munoz-Price, L.S., and Weinsten, R.A. (2008) Acinetobacter Infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 1271-1288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra070741
[2] Visca, P., Seifert, H. and Towner, K.J. (2011) Acinetobacter Infection—An Emerging Threat to Human Health. IUBMB Life, 63, 1048-1054.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.534
[3] Wisplinghoff, H., Bischoff, T., Tallent, S.M., Seifert, H., Wenzel, R.P. and Edmond, M.B. (2004) Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in US Hospitals: Analysis of 24, 178 Cases from a Prospective Nationwide Surveillance Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39, 309-317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/421946
[4] Abbo, A., Carmeli, Y., Navon-Venezia, S., Seigman-Igra, Y. and Schwaber, M.J. (2007) Impact of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii on Clinical Outcomes. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 26, 793-800.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-007-0371-8
[5] Cisneros, J.M. and Rodriguez-Bano, J. (2002) Nosocomial Bacteremia Due to Acinetobacter baumannii: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Treatment. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 8, 687-693.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-0691.2002.00487.x
[6] Dijkshoorn, L., Nemec, A. and Harald, S. (2007) An Increasing Threat in Hospitals: Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nature, 5, 939-949.
[7] Perez, F., Hujer, A.M., Hujer, K.M., Decker, B.K., Rather, P.N. and Bonomo, R.A. (2007) Global Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 51, 3471-3484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01464-06
[8] Gonlugur, U., Bakici, M.Z., Akkurt, I. and Efeoglu, T. (2004) Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns among Respiratory Isolates of Gram-Negative Bacilli in a Turkish University Hospital. BMC Microbiology, 4, 1471-2180.
[9] Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (2002) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty-Second Informational Supplement. M100-S22, 32, 64-65.
[10] Howard, A., Donoghue, M.O., Feeney, A. and Sleator, R.D. (2010) Acinetobacter baumannii: An Emerging Opportunistic Pathogen. Virulence, 3, 243-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/viru.19700
[11] Dent, L.L., Marshal, D.R., Pratap, S. and Hulette, R.B. (2010) Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii: A Descriptive Study in a City Hospital. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10, 196, 1-7.
[12] Khan, M.A., Mahomed, M.F., Ashshi, A.M. and Faiz, A. (2012) Drug Resistance Patterns of Acinetobacter baumanii in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 51, 127-131.
[13] Joshi, S.G., Litake, G.M., Satpute, M.G., Telang, N.V., Ghole V.S. and Niphadkar K.B. (2006) Clinical and Demographic Features of Infection Caused by Acinetobacter Species. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 60, 351-360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5359.27219
[14] Hsueh, P.R., Teng, L.J., Chen, C.Y., Chen, W.H., Ho, S.W. and Luh, K.T. (2002) Pandrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii Causing Nosocomial Infections in a University Hospital, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 827-832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0805.020014
[15] Türkpglu, M.A. and Iskit, T.A. (2008) Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Caused by High Risk Microorganisms: A Matched Case Control Study. TuberkToraks, 56, 139-149.
[16] Dizbay, M., Tunccan, O.G., Ergur-Sezer, B. and Hizel, K. (2010) Nosocomial Imipenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii Infections: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 42, 741-746.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2010.489568
[17] Mahajan, G., Sheemar, S. and Chopra, S. (2011) Carbapenem Resistance and Phenotypic Detection of Carbapenemases in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumanii. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 65, 18-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5359.103161
[18] Maragakis, L.L. and Perl, T.M. (2008) Acinetobacter baumannii: Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Treatment Options. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46, 1254-1259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529198

  
comments powered by Disqus
OJMM Subscription
E-Mail Alert
OJMM Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
OJMM News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.