Down Regulated Protein C Plasma Levels in the Absence of Factor V Leiden Mutation in HIV Patients: An Observational Study in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria
Simon O. Obi1, Ballah Akawu Denue2*, Ifeanyi Chukwu O. Martin3, Marycelin M. Baba1, Grace I. Amilo4, Salihu Aliyu Kwayabura5, Obi Ejeatulu6
1Department of Medical Lab, Science College of Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
2Department of Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
3Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
4Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
5Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
6Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.52009   PDF   HTML   XML   2,727 Downloads   3,201 Views   Citations

Abstract

Background: As life expectancy of HIV-infected patients increases with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), protean haematologic manifestation including decreased activity of natural anticoagulants such as protein C may occur in the absence of genetic risk factors. Based on this preposition, we assessed the plasma level of protein C, and prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation among HIV-infected individuals. Our cohort consisted of 499 HIV-infected patients, of which 250 had AIDS, while 249 were either asymptomatic or had minor mucocutaneous infection consistent with WHO clinical stages I and II without features of AIDS. We also evaluated 251 healthy, HIV-negative subjects as controls. All participants were tested for plasma protein C levels and factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (Arg 506 Gln) by automation and amplification created restriction enzyme site (ACRES) polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The prevalence of reduced protein C plasma levels among HIV positive patients was 20%; it was more prevalent among those that had AIDS compared with those without features of AIDS, but within WHO clinical stage I and II, (93.3% vs 6.7%) respectively. None of the control patients had either reduced protein C nor FVL mutation. All participants that demonstrated reduced protein C plasma levels demonstrated normal FVL genotype (1691G/G). Conclusion: Decreased protein C plasma levels can occur in HIV-infected patients in the absence of factor V Leiden mutation. The risk increases with severity of the disease. Deranged protein C plasma level increases the risk of hypercoagulable state in patients with advanced HIV disease; it should be considered among the causes of thrombo embolism in this group of patients.

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Obi, S. , Denue, B. , O. Martin, I. , M. Baba, M. , Amilo, G. , Kwayabura, S. and Ejeatulu, O. (2015) Down Regulated Protein C Plasma Levels in the Absence of Factor V Leiden Mutation in HIV Patients: An Observational Study in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. World Journal of AIDS, 5, 76-82. doi: 10.4236/wja.2015.52009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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