Composition and Functional Properties of Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus spp.) Seed Flour


Yam bean (Pachyrhizus spp.) is legume crop that not only produces edible roots but also has a high yield of unutilized seeds. Although the yam bean seeds are rich in protein, they are not used due to a high content of toxic rotenone. In this study, yam bean seeds were detoxified and the nutritional and functional properties of their protein determined to assess the proteins’ potential for applications. Seeds of 10 accessions (2 accessions of P. erosus, 4 accessions of P. ahipa and 4 accessions of P. tuberosus) were analyzed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties (bulk density, least gelation concentration, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying capacity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity, foam stability and protein solubility). The results showed that yam bean seeds contained: 29.2 - 32.1 g/100g proteins, 31.3 - 33.0 g/100 g carbohydrates, 24.1 - 25.6 g/100g total fat, 7.5 - 8.1 g/100g crude fiber and 3.4 - 4.1 g/100g ash. The defatted P. erosus seed flour contained 45.6 - 48.8 g/100g protein, 32.6 - 36.5 g/100g total carbohydrate, 6.7 - 7.1 g/100g crude fiber, 6.0 - 6.4 g/100g ash and 5.2/100 g crude fat. The defatted yam bean seed flour exhibited relatively high protein solubility (68.0% - 70.4%), least gelation concentration (14%), water absorption capacity (2.8% - 2.9%) and oil absorption capacity (1.5%). The defatted flour exhibited emulsifying capacity of 35.7% - 36.0%, emulsion stability of 33.2% - 33.5%, foaming capacities of 42% and foam stability of 25.1% - 25.8%. With respect to pasting properties, the defatted yam bean seed flours exhibited pasting temperature of 80.0?C - 81.3?C, peak viscosity of 145.5 - 146.7 RVU, trough viscosity of 95.1 - 102.0 RVU, break down of 43.5 - 51.6 RVU, set back of 252.9 - 258.1 RVU and final viscosity of 348 - 360 RVU. The results show that yam bean seed has potential for use in both food and non-food applications.

Share and Cite:

Kisambira, A. , Muyonga, J. , Byaruhanga, Y. , Tukamuhabwa, P. , Tumwegamire, S. and Grüneberg, W. (2015) Composition and Functional Properties of Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus spp.) Seed Flour. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 736-746. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.68076.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bhat, R. and Karim, R.R. (2009) Exploring the Nutritional Potential of Wild and Underutilized Legumes. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 8, 305-333.
[2] Zanklan, A.S., Ahouangonou, S., Heiko, C.B., Pawelzik, E. and Grüneberg, W.J. (2007) Evaluation of the Storage Root-Forming Legume Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus ssp.) under West African Conditions. Crop Science, 47, 1934-1946.
[3] Grüneberg, W.J., Goffman, F.D. and Velasco, L. (1999) Characterization of Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus spp.) Seeds as Potential Sources of High Palmitic Acid Oil. Journal of the America Oil Chemists’ Society, 76, 1309-1312.
[4] Santos, A.C., Cavalcanti, M.S. and Coelho, L.C. (1996) Chemical Composition and Nutritional Potential of Yam Bean Seeds (Pachyrhizus erosus L. urban). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 49, 35-41.
[5] Sai-Ut, S., Ketnawa, S., Chaiwut, P. and Rawdkuen, S. (2009) Biochemical and Functional Properties of Proteins from Red Kidney, Navy and Adzuki Beans. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 2, 493-504.
[6] AOAC (2000) Official Methods of Analysis International. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
[7] Pomeranz, Y. and Meloan, E.C. (1994) Food Analysis: Theory and Practice. 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York.
[8] Butt, S.M. and Batool, R. (2010) Nutritional and Functional Properties of Some Promising Legumes Protein Isolates. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9, 373-379.
[9] Mugendi, J.B.W., Njagi, E.N.M., Kuria, E.N., Mwasaru, M.A., Mureithi, J.G. and Apostolides, Z. (2010) Nutritional Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Mucuna Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Protein Isolates. International Food Research Journal, 17, 357-366.
[10] Appiah, F., Asibuo, Y.J. and Kumah, P. (2011) Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Bean Flours of Three Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Varieties in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 100-104.
[11] Sayar, S., Koksel, H. and Turhan, M. (2005) The Effects of Protein Rich Fraction and Defatting on Pasting Behavior of Chickpea Starch. Starch-St?rke, 57, 599-604.
[12] Berk, Z. (1992) Technology of Production of Edible Flour and Protein Products from Soybeans. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 97.
[13] Fernández-Quintela, A., Macarulla, M.T., Del Barrio, A.S. and Martinez, J.A. (1997) Composition and Functional Properties of Protein Isolates Obtained from Commercial Legumes Grown in Northern Spain. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 51, 331-341.
[14] Guimar?es, R.C.A., Favaro, S.P., Viana, A.C.A., Neto, J.A.B., Neves, V.A. and Honer, M.R. (2012) Study of the Proteins in the Defatted Flour and Protein Concentrate of Baru Nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog). Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. Campinas, 32, 464-470.
[15] Mohamed, T.K., Zhu, K., Issoufou, A., Fatmata, T. and Zhou, H. (2009) Functionality, in Vitro Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Two Varieties of Defatted Foxtail Millet Protein Concentrates. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 10, 5224-5238.
[16] Amadou, I., Amza, T., Foh, M.B.K., Kamara, M.T. and Le, G.W. (2010) Influence of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 Fermentation on the Functional Properties of Soybean Protein Meal. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 22, 456-465.
[17] Oladele, A.K. and Aina, J.O. (2007) Chemical Composition and Functional Properties of Flour Produced from Two Varieties of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 2473-2476.
[18] Valim, M.F.C.F.A. and Batistuti, J.P. (1998) Functional Properties of Defatted Chick Pea (Cicer arietinum, L.) Flour as Influenced by Thermoplastic Extrusion. Alimentos e Nutri??o Araraquara, 9, 65-75.
[19] Khalid, I.I., Elhardallou, S.B. and Elkhalifa, E.A. (2012) Composition and Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Flour and Protein Isolates. American Journal of Food Technology, 7, 113-122.
[20] Adebowale, A.A., Sanni, L.O. and Awonorin, S.O. (2005) Effect of Texture Modifiers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Dried Fufu. Food Science and Technology International, 11, 373-382.
[21] Kiosseoglou, V. and Paraskevopoulou, A. (2011) Functional and Physicochemical Properties of Pulse Proteins. In: Tiwari, K.B., Gowen, A. and McKenna, B., Eds., Pulse Food: Processing, Quality and Nutraceutical Applications, Elsevier Inc., London, 57-90.
[22] Fekria, A.M., Isam, A.M.A., Suha, O.A. and Elfadil, E.B. (2012) Nutritional and Functional Characterization of Defatted Seed Cake Flour of Two Sudanese Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Cultivars. International Food Research Journal, 19, 629-637.
[23] Hussain, S., Anjum, F.M., Butt, M.S. and Sheikh, M.A. (2008) Chemical Compositions and Functional Properties of Flaxseed Flour. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 24, 649-653.
[24] Ndife, J., Udobi, Ejikeme, C. and Amaechi, N. (2010) Effect of Oven Drying on the Functional and Nutritional Properties of Whole Egg and Its Components. African Journal of Food Science, 4, 254-257.
[25] Damodaran, S. (1996) Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. In: Fennema, R.O., Food Chemistry, 3rd Edition, CRC Press, New York, 321-416.
[26] Nassar, A.G. (2008) Chemical Composition and Functional Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) Seeds Flour and Protein Concentrate. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 3, 11-16.
[27] Adebowale, A.Y. (2008) A Study of the Control Variables during the Preparation of Protein Isolate from Mucuna Bean (Mucuna pruriens). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 7, 3223-3238.
[28] Maziya-Dixon, B., Adebowale, A.A., Onabanjo, O.O. and Dixon, A.G.O. (2005) Effect of Variety and Drying Methods on Physico-Chemical Properties of High Quality Cassava Flour from Yellow Cassava Roots. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 7, 635-641.
[29] Ikegwu, O.J., Okechukwu, P.E. and Ekumankana, E.O. (2010) Physico-Chemical and Pasting Characteristics of Flour and Starch from Achi Brachystegia Eurycoma Seed. Journal of Food Technology, 8, 58-66.
[30] Ndie, E.C., Nnamani, C.V. and Oselebe, H.O. (2010) Some Physicochemical Characteristics of Defatted Flours Derived from African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conoforum): An Underutilized Legume. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9, 909-911.
[31] Akinjayeju, O. and Ajayi, F.O. (2011) Effects of Dehulling on Functional and Sensory Properties of Flours from Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2, 344-349.
[32] Oluwalana, I.B., Oluwamukomi, M.O., Fagbemi, T.N. and Oluwafemi, G.I. (2011) Effects of Temperature and Period of Blanching on the Pasting and Functional Properties of Plantain (Musa parasidiaca) Flour. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 2, 164-169.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.