An Entropy-Approach to the Duality Property

DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.36036   PDF   HTML   XML   4,216 Downloads   7,660 Views   Citations


According to a previously introduced entropy approach, it is possible to clarify the confusions of the duality concept that electrons and light may behave as waves or particles. In other words, the electron is clearly defined in this paper as a particle and the light is neatly defined as waves. Such an approach considered the flow of electric charges as a flow of ionized waves and the magnetic flux as electromagnetic waves of magnetic potential. By a similar entropy approach, the particle’s kinetic energy is defined also as electromagnetic waves. So, the electron can be defined as an energized particle whose electric charge, magnetic energy and kinetic energy are forms of electromagnetic waves. According to these definitions and similarity of the mechanisms and laws characterizing the flow of mass and energy in general, the flow of electrons can be postulated as a simultaneous flow of two energy-components; particulized energy and wave energy. Hence, the electron doesn’t have a dual nature. Rather, its behavior as a particle or as waves depends on the relative contributions of such components in the electron’s flow. Reviewing the results of de-Broglie’s experiments, it is possible to consider the flow of any particles as a simultaneous flow of waves and particles. Introducing the definition of the flow of electric charges as ionized waves, the photoelectric-effect can be postulated as an ionization process of the incident radiation during its reflection into an electric field. Similarly, the photovoltaic phenomena are postulated as a result of a photorefractive effect that may induce an electric potential into the incident radiation when crossing the electrically biased p-n junctions of photocells. Such postulates eliminate the confusing particle-property of light and prove that light has a wave-nature only. The truth of the introduced postulates is proven through finding plausible explanation of the sintering phenomena and thermoelectricity. Finally, this paper succeeded in introducing plausible explanations of results of Thompson’s experiment and other phenomena that end the confusions in defining the true nature of light and electrons as waves and particles.

Share and Cite:

S. Abdelhady, "An Entropy-Approach to the Duality Property," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2011, pp. 220-227. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.36036.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] R. Haaiday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, “Fundamentals of Physics,” 7th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004.
[2] D. Rothe, “Space and the Wave-Particle Engima,” Ifinite Energy, the Magazine of New Energy Technology, Vol. 7, No. 42, 2002, pp. 49-57.
[3] L. Hackermüller, S. Uttenthaler and A. Zeilinger, et al., “The Wave Nature of Biomolecules and Fluorofullerenes,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 91, No. 9, 2003, Article ID: 90408.
[4] S. Abdelhady, “A Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics that Embraces Electrical and Magnetic Potentials,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications, Vol. 2, No. 3, March 2010, pp. 162-166.
[5] S. Abdelhady, “Thermodynamic Analysis of Electric Charges and Magnetic Flux,” Cairo 11th International Conference on Energy and Environment, Ghurgada, March 2009, pp. 175-185.
[6] C. V. Toget, “The Equivalence of Magnetic and Kinetic Energy,” Galilean Electrodynamics, Vol. 16, No. 6., 2006, p. 110.
[7] P. Rashkov, “Kinetic Energy is Identical to Electromagnetic Energy”, Philips-Universtat Marburg, 2010.
[8] J. P. Wesley, “Classical Quantum Theory,” Chapter 6, Weiherdammstrasse 24, Blumberg, 1996.
[9] S. Abdelhady, “Energy Analysis of the Electron Duality Property,” Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Aerospace Sciences & Aviation Technology, ASAT-14, Cairo, March 2011, paper MD-5.
[10] D. L. Anderson, “The Discovery of the Electron,” Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1964.
[11] M. N. Rahaman “Ceramic Processing and Sintering,” 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003.
[12] P. A. Tipler and A. R. Leweyn, “ Modern Physics,” 4th Edition, W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, 2003.
[13] R. D. Rowe, “Thermoelectrics Handbook,” Taylor & Francis, London, 2006.
[15] R. L. Liboff, “Kinetic Theory,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1990.
[16] D. M. William, “Analysis of Transport Phenomena,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
[17] W. M. Yao, “Review of Particle Physics,” Journal of Physics G, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2006, pp. 77-115.
[18] J. S. Song and E. S. Yang, “A Study of the Photovoltaic Effect of a Semiconductor Grain Boundary by a Scanning Laser Beam,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 58, No. 8, 1985, pp. 3129-3132. doi:10.1063/1.335816
[19] W. Ketterle, “When Atoms Behave as Waves; Bose-Einstein Condensation and the Atom Laser,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 74, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1131-1151. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.74.1131
[20] T. Sasaki, A. Katsuragi and Y. Nakazawa, “Photorefractive Effect of Power Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals,” International Conference on Optics and Photonics, India, November 2009.
[21] E. K. Iordanishvili, “Thermodynamic Potential of Thermoelectricity,” Journal of Thermoelectricity, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1999.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.