Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Health Professionals’ Attitudes toward Identification of Female Victims of Domestic Violence


Back ground: Domestic violence against women is a major public health problem and violations of women’s human rights. Health professionals could play an important role in screening for the victims. From the evidence to date, it is unclear whether health professionals do play an active role in identification of the victims. Objectives: To develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure health professionals’ attitude to identifying female victims of domestic violence. Methods: A primary questionnaire was constructed in accordance with established guidelines using the Theory of Planned Behaviour Ajzen (1975) to develop an instrument to measure health professionals’ attitudes in identifying female victim of DV. An expert panel was used to establish content validity. Focus groups amongst a group of health professionals (N = 5) of the target population were performed to confirm face validity. A pilot study (N = 30 nurses and doctors) was undertaken to elicit the feasibility and reliability of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was also administered a second time after one week to check the stability of the tests. Results: Feedbacks of the expert panel’s and group discussion confirmed that the questionnaire had the content and face validity. Cronbach’s alpha values for all the items were greater than 0.7. Strong correlations between the direct and indirect measures confirmed that the indirect measures were well constructed. High test-retest correlations confirmed that the measures were reliable in the sense of temporal stability. Significance: This tool has the potential to be used by researchers in expanding the knowledge base in this important area.

Share and Cite:

Nguyen, H. , Anderson, D. , Dunne, M. and Nguyen, H. (2015) Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Health Professionals’ Attitudes toward Identification of Female Victims of Domestic Violence. Health, 7, 596-605. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.75071.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] World Health Organization (2011) Violence against Women: Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence against Women, in Violence against Women.
[2] World Health Organization (2005) WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women, in Initial Results on Prevalence, Health Outcomes and Women’s Responses.
[3] Olive, P. (2007) Care for Emergency Department Patients Who Have Experienced Domestic Violence: A Review of the Evidence Base. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 1736-1748.
[4] Boyle, A., Robinson, S. and Atkinson, P. (2004) Domestic Violence in Emergency Medicine Patients. Emergency Medicine, 21, 9-13.
[5] Ramsay, J., et al. (2002) Should Health Professionals Screen Women for Domestic Violence? Systematic Review. British Medical Journal, 325, 314.
[6] Williamson, K.J., et al. (2004) Screening for Domestic Violence: Practice Patterns, Knowledge, and Attitudes of Physicians in Arizona. South Medical Journal, 97, 1049-1054.
[7] Love, C., et al. (2001) Dentists’ Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Domestic Violence. The Need for an Effective Response. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 132, 85-93.
[8] Tilden, V.P., et al. (1994) Factors That Influence Clinicians’ Assessment and Management of Family Violence. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 628-633.
[9] Gadomski, A.M., et al. (2001) Changes in Health Care Providers’ Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors Regarding Domestic Violence, Following a Multifaceted Intervention. Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 76, 1045-1052.
[10] Androulaki, Z., et al. (2008) The Phenomenon of Women Abuse: Attitudes and Perceptions of Health Professionals Working in Health Care Centers in the Prefecture of Lasithi, Crete, Greece. Health Science Journal, 2, 33-40.
[11] López, M.L., García-Cueto, E., Fernández, J.M., López, S., Del Valle, M.O. and Cueto, A. (2003) Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate the Attitude towards Primary Prevention Advice from the European Code against Cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12, 157-164.
[12] Parsons, L.H., Zaccaro, D., Wells, B. and Stovall, T.G. (1995) Methods of and Attitudes toward Screening Obstetrics and Gynecology Patients for Domestic Violence. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 173, 381-387.
[13] Reid, S.A. and Glasser, M. (1997) Primary Care Physicians’ Recognition of and Attitudes toward Domestic Violence. Academic Medicine, 72, 51-53.
[14] Cann, K., Withnell, S., Shakespeare, J., Doll, H. and Thomas, J. (2001) Domestic Violence a Comparative Survey of Levels of Detection, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Healthcare Workers. Public Health, 115, 89-95.
[15] Nicolaidis, C., Curry, M. and Gerrity, M. (2005) Measuring the Impact of the Voices of Survivors Program on Health Care Workers’ Attitudes toward Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20, 731-737.
[16] Glanz, K., Rimer, B. and Viswanath, K. (2008) Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 4th Edition, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
[17] Ajzen, I. (1991) The Theory of Planned Behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
[18] Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, Inc., Boston.
[19] Francis, J., Eccles, M.P., Johnston, M., Walker, A.E., Grimshaw, J.M., Foy, R., et al. (2004) Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A Manual for Health Services Researchers. University of Newcastle, Newscastle.
[20] Ajzen, I. (2005) Attitudes, Personality and Behaviour. 2nd Edition, Open University Press, Berkshire.
[21] Ajzen, I. (2006) Constructing a Theory of Planned Behaviour Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Consideration.
[22] Nguyen, H.T.T., Anderson, D.J., Dunne, M.P. and Nguyen, H.T. (2014) Underlying Beliefs Influencing Vietnamese Nurses and Doctors in Screening for Victims of Domestic Violence: An Exploratory Study. Health, 6, 691-698.
[23] Rathus, J.H. and Feindler, E.L. (2004) Assessment of Partner Violence: A Handbook for Researchers and Practioners. American Psychological Association, Washington DC.
[24] Pallant, J. (2011) SPSS Survival Manual. 4th Edition, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.
[25] Kirkwood, B.R. and Sterne, J.A.C. (2010) Essential Medical Statistics. 2nd Edition, Blackwell Science, Carlton.
[26] Landis, J.R. and Koch, G.G. (1977) The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174.
[27] Ghazanfari, Z., Niknami, S., Ghofranipour, F., Hajizadeh, E. and Montazeri, A. (2010) Development and Psychometric Properties of a Belief-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP). BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10, 104.
[28] Politn, D.F. and Beck, C.T. (2004) Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia.
[29] Westfall, R.L., Boyd, H.W. and Campbell, D.T. (1957) The Use of Structured Techniques in Motivation Research. Journal of Marketing, 22, 134-139.
[30] Simon, J. and Simon, R. (1975) The Effect of Money Incentives on Family Size: A Hypothetical-Question Study. Public Opinion Quarterly, 38, 585-595.
[31] Fisher, R.J. and Tellis, G.J. (1998) Removing Social Desirability Bias with Indirect Questioning: Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? Advances in Consumer Research, 1, 563-567.
[32] Blue, C.L. and Marrero, D.G. (2006) Psychometric Properties of the Healthful Eating Belief Scales for Persons at Risk of Diabetes. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour, 38, 134-142.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.