Gluten-Free Flat Bread and Biscuits Production by Cassava, Extruded Soy Protein and Pumpkin Powder


In recent years, there has been an increase in demand of gluten free products that are suitable for people with celiac disease. The present study was carried out to produce gluten free flat bread and biscuits with good quality. The ingredients under this study were cassava flour, rice flour, extruded soy protein (ESP) and pumpkin powder. Four levels of ESP were used for production of flat bread and biscuits: 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% for flat bread and 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels for biscuits. Results of flat bread samples showed that protein, fat, ash and fiber contents increased in all samples as increasing the level of ESP. Flat bread at level 10% ESP had the highest value of β-carotene. Alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) at zero time and 24 h of flat bread storage had high values for levels 2.5% and 5% ESP. Water holding capacity (WHC) increased insignificantly by increasing the level of ESP. Color measurements revealed that the lightness decreased and the redness increased with increasing the level of ESP. Sensory evaluation of flat bread revealed that 2.5% followed by 5% ESP level had high score of overall acceptability. Physical properties of biscuits indicated that as the level of ESP increased the diameter, thickness, volume and specific volume decreased. Biscuits sample with 20% ESP had the highest values of protein, fat, ash and fiber but the lowest in total carbohydrates. Also β-carotene and vitamin A content increased in biscuit samples. Caloric values of biscuits in all treated samples were lower than control. Lightness decreased while redness increased with increasing the level of ESP. Data of texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that hardness and adhesiveness (g) increased as ESP level increased. Sensory evaluation of biscuits showed that addition of ESP at 20% level decreased significantly texture score from 9.51 to 6.61 (P < 0.05) but insignificantly affected the other sensory scores.

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Aly, M. and Seleem, H. (2015) Gluten-Free Flat Bread and Biscuits Production by Cassava, Extruded Soy Protein and Pumpkin Powder. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 660-674. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.67069.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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