Determining the Levels of Trace Elements Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Honey of Stingless Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Voltammetry


Determining the levels of heavy metals in honey is a measure to control its quality. The objective of this study was to determine the contents of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in honey of stingless bee. The differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to determine the trace elements in honey samples. Pb was detected in 100% of the samples, Cu and Zn in 98.15%, and Cd only in 33.33%. The trace elements analyzed detected in the samples remained within tolerable levels in foods for human consumption.

Share and Cite:

Nascimento, A. , Marchini, L. , Carvalho, C. , Araújo, D. , Silveira, T. and Olinda, R. (2015) Determining the Levels of Trace Elements Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Honey of Stingless Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Voltammetry. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 591-596. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.67062.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Pandey, R., Shubhashish, K. and Pandey, J. (2012) Dietary Intake of Pollutant Aerosols via Vegetable Influenced by Atmospheric Deposition and Wastewater Irrigation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 76, 200-208.
[2] Tressou, J., Crépet, A., Bertail, P., Feinberg, M.H. and Leblanc, J.C.H. (2004) Probabilistic Exposure Assessment to Food Chemicals Based on Extreme Value Theory. Application to Heavy Metals from Fish and Sea Products. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42, 1349-1358.
[3] Virga, R.H.P., Geraldo, L.P. and Santos, F.H. (2007) Avaliação de contaminação por metais pesados em amostras de siris azuis. Ciências e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 27, 779-785.
[4] Segura-Muñoz, S.I. (2002) Impacto ambiental na área do aterro sanitário e incinerador de resíduos sólidos de Ribeirão Preto: Uma avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados. Universidade de São Paulo, Tese.
[5] Fiszman, M., Pfeiffer, W.C. and Lacerda, L.D. (1984) Comparison of Methods Used for Extraction and Geochemical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Bottom Sediments from Sepetiba Bay, R.J. Environmental Technology Letters, 5, 567-575.
[6] Bogdanov, S., Haldimann, M., Luginbuh, W. and Gallmann, P. (2007) Minerals in Honey: Environmental, Geographical and Botanical Aspects. Bee World, 46, 269-275.
[7] Porrini, C., Sabatini, A.G., Girotti, S., Ghini, S., Medrzycki, P., Grillenzoni, F., Bortolotti, L., Gattavecchia, E. and Celli, G. (2003) Honey Bees and Bee Products as Monitors of the Environmental Contamination. Apiacta, 38, 63-70.
[8] Deschamps, E. and Matschllat, J. (2007) Arsênio antropogênico e natural: Um estudo em regiões do Quadrilátero Fer-rífero-Belo Horizonte: Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente MG.
[9] Pohl, P. (2009) Determination of Metal Content in Honey by Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectrometries. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 28, 117-128.
[10] Krug, F.J. (2008) Métodos de Preparo de Amostras: Fundamentos sobre métodos de preparo de amostras organicas e inorganicas para análise elementar. Piracicaba, CALQ.
[11] Box, G.E.P. and Cox, D.R. (1964) An Analysis of Transformations (With Discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 26, 211-252.
[12] Hartley, H.O. (1950) The Use of Range in Analysis of Variance. Biometrika, 37, 271-280.
[13] SAS Institute (2003) SAS/Stat 9.1.3 Service Pack 2. Cary.
[14] Lee, J.D. (1999) Química inorganica: Não tão concisa. Edgard Blücher Ltda, São Paulo.
[15] World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Safety Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Proceedings of the 61st Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Rome, 10-19 June 2003.
[16] Brasil (1998) Portaria No. 685, de 27 de agosto de 1998: Princípios Gerais para o Estabelecimento de Níveis Máximos de Contaminantes Químicos em Alimentos. D.O.U. No. 165-E, de 28/08/98, Secão I, 28-29.
[17] Sandstead, H.H., Dintzis, F.R., Bogyo, T., Milne, D.A., Jacob, R.A. and Klevay, L.M. (1990) Dietary Factors That Can Impair Calcium and Zinc Nutritive of the Elderly. In: Princely, J. and Sandstead, H.H., Eds., Nutrition and Aging, Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, 241-262.
[18] World Health Organization (WHO) (1999) Summary and Conclusions. Proceedings of the 53rd Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Rome, 1-10 June 1999.
[19] Brasil (1990) Leis, etc. Portaria No. 16 de 13 de março de 1990: Fixa Limites Máximos de Tolerancia de Chumbo em Alimentos. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, 15. Mar. 1990. Seção I, 5436.
[20] Araújo, D.F.D. (2012) Mel de abelhas Apis mellifera (L.) como ferramenta para bioindicação de poluição ambiental. Dissertação, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
[21] Silveira, T.A., Araujo, D.F.D., Marchini, L.C., Moreti, A.C.C.C. and Olinda, R.A. (2013) Detection of Metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) in Pollen Collected from a Fragment of the Atlantic Forest in Piracicaba/SP. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination, 8, 31-36.
[22] Bilandzic, N., Dokic, M., Sedak, M., Varenina, I., Kolanovic, B.S., Konzurat, A., Simic, B. and Rudan, N. (2012) Content of Five Trace Elements in Different Honey Types from Koprivnica-Krievci County. Slovenian Veterinary Research, 49, 167-175.
[23] Conti, M.E. (2000) Lazio Region (Central Italy) Honeys: A Survey of Mineral Content and Typical Quality Parameters. Food Control, 11, 459-463.
[24] Przybylowski, P. and Wilczyńska, A. (2001) Honey as an Environmental Marker. Food Chemistry, 74, 289-291.
[25] Devillers, J., Dore, J.C., Marenco, M., Poirier-Duchene, F., Galand, N. and Viel, C. (2002) Chemometrical Analysis of 18 Metallic and Non Metallic Elements Found in Honeys Sold in France. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 5998-6007.
[26] Terrab, A., Recamales, A.F., Hernandez, D. and Heredia, F.J. (2004) Characterization of Spanish Thyme Honey by Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Mineral Contents. Food Chemistry, 88, 537-542.
[27] Golob, T., Dobersek, U., Kump, P. and Necemer, M. (2005) Determination of Trace and Minor Elements in Slovenian Honey by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 91, 593-600.
[28] Bratu, I. and Georgescu, C. (2005) Chemical Contamination of Bee Honey: Identifying Sensor of the Environment Pollution. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 6, 95-98.
[29] Pisani, A., Protano, G. and Riccobono, F. (2008) Minor and Trace Elements in Different Honey Types Produced in Siena County (Italy). Food Chemistry, 107, 1553-1560.
[30] Lachman, J., Kolihova, D., Miholová, D., Kosata, J., Titěra, D. and Kult, K. (2007) Analysis of Minority Honey Components: Possible Use for the Evaluation of Honey Quality. Food Chemistry, 101, 973-979.
[31] Kropf, U., Korosec, M., Bertoncelj, J., Ogrincb, N., Necemerb, M., Kumpb, P. and Golob, T. (2010) Determination of the Geographical Origin of Slovenian Black Locust, Lime and Chestnut Honey. Food Chemistry, 121, 839-846.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.