Climate Changes: How the Atmosphere Really Works


Top concepts adopted by the current science on climate changes or atmospheric warming are not in agreement with the first principles of the physics. This paper presents a new understanding on the atmospheric behaviors. For example, the radiation is not the only factor that influences the air temperature, as the law of conservation of energy defines and as shown physically and mathematically in this article. The Sun is not the only heat source for the atmosphere because there is generation of heat at the Earth’s surface by human activities. It is also shown that the water vapor is not a null effect and that the water vapor cannot be removed from the atmosphere for air temperature, greenhouse effect and climate changes considerations, in contrast to the current literature beliefs. The “feedback” concept is unfounded and invalid. The literature also says that “water vapor increases as the Earth’s atmosphere warms”, but this is also incorrect. The above equivocated understanding is accompanied by another one which believes that more water evaporates if the air temperature increases, but it is not in this way. These demonstrations and other authors’ surveys showing that in the last decades the planet became wetter eliminate the literature concept that the water vapor does not have influence on the atmospheric warming/cooling. The conventional water cycle is related to the mass of water (mass of evaporation mass of precipitation) and then the physical and mathematical principles of the new hydrological cycle that includes the direct human influence are shown. The same is done for the carbon cycle. It is solved the problem on why the wind speed on Venus is very high above the cloud deck while it is stagnant below it, being this the same physical principle valid for the Earth’s cloud cover. In the atmosphere, all the corresponding principles are the same, only their amounts change. It is demonstrated that the CO2 is not decisive for building and changing the temperatures of Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter and Earth. Ice cores are not valid for “determining” “past” temperatures of the planet, because the mass of their air bubbles may be old, but the corresponding temperatures are not.

Share and Cite:

Sartori, E. (2015) Climate Changes: How the Atmosphere Really Works. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 151-168. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.54016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] IPCC (2014)
[2] NASA (2014) A blanket around the Earth.
[3] NOAA (2014) Greenhouse Gases—Water Vapor.
[4] Sartori, E. (1987) A Mathematical Model for Predicting Heat and Mass Transfer from a Free Water Surface. Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress, Hamburg, 3160-3164.
[5] Sartori, E. (1996) Solar Still versus Solar Evaporator: A Comparative Study between Their Thermal Behaviors. Solar Energy, 56, 199-206.
[6] Sartori, E. (2006) Convection Coefficient Equations for Forced Air Flow over Flat Surfaces. Solar Energy, 80, 1063- 1071.
[7] Sartori, E. (2012) The Physical Principles Elucidate Numerous Atmospheric Behaviors and Human-Induced Climatic Consequences. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 2, 302-318.
[8] Sartori, E. (2000) A Critical Review on Equations Employed for the Calculation of the Evaporation Rate from Free Water Surfaces. Solar Energy, 68, 77-89.
[9] Sartori, E. (2013) Evaporation and the Planet.
[10] van Vliet, M.T.H., Yearsley, J.R., Ludwig, F., Vögele, S., Lettenmaier, D.P. and Kabat, P. (2012) Vulnerability of US and European Electricity Supply to Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 2, 676-681.
[11] Alexander, L.V., Zhang, X., Peterson, T.C., Caesar, J., Gleason, B., Klein, T.A., Haylock, M., Collins, D., Trewin, B., Rahimzadeh, F., Tagipour, A., Rupa, K.K., Revadekar, J., Griffiths, G., Vincent, L., Stephenson, D.B., Burn, J., Aguilar, E., Brunet, M., Taylor, M., New, M., Zhai, P., Rusticucci, M. and Vazquez-Aguirre, J.L. (2006) Global Observed Changes in Daily Climate Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, DO5109.
[12] Groisman, P.Y., Knight, R.W., Easterling, D.R., Karl, T.R., Hegerl, G.C. and Razuvaev, V.N. (2005) Trends in Intense Precipitation in the Climate Record. Journal of Climate, 18, 1326-1350.
[13] Brutsaert, W. and Parlange, M.B. (1998) Hydrological Cycle Explains the Evaporation Paradox. Nature, 396, 30.
[14] Roderick, M.L. and Farquhar, G.D. (2002) The Cause of Decreased Pan Evaporation over the Past 50 Years. Science, 298, 1410-1411.
[15] Sartori, E. (2003) Letter to the Editor. Solar Energy, 73, 481.
[16] Kaplani, E. and Kaplanis, S. (2014) Thermal Modeling and Experimental Assessment of the Dependence of PV Module Temperature on Wind Velocity and Direction, Module Orientation and Inclination. Solar Energy, 107, 443-460.
[17] Sartori, E. (2014) Accuracy of Convection Coefficient Equations for Forced Air Flow over Flat Surfaces.
[18] Araújo, I.B., Bos, M.S., Bastos, L.C. and Cardoso, M.M. (2013) Analysing the 100 Year Sea Level Record of Leixões, Portugal. Journal of Hydrology, 481, 76-84.
[19] NASA (2014) Climate Change: How Do We Know?
[20] NASA (2014) Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle.
[21] Al-Mahdouri, A., Gonome, H., Okajima, J. and Maruyama, S. (2014) Theoretical and Experimental Study of Solar Ther- mal Performance of Different Greenhouse Cladding Materials. Solar Energy, 107, 314-327.
[22] WDHS—Wisconsin Department of Health Services (2014).
[23] UTK—University of Tenessee Knoxville (2014) The Atmosphere of Venus.
[24] TET—The Engineering Toolbox (2014)

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.