Modeling Distribution of Selective Ions in Urban and Rural Areas Using Geographical Information System


The main objective of this study is to evaluate the distributions of selective ions in Makkah wells using GIS. The present study focuses on the presence and accumulation of several ions in the ground water of Makkah City. This study exhibits selected measurements of the levels and distribution of 4 ions (nitrate, nitrite, chloride and sulphate) in wells water using the Geographical Information System (GIS). The study covered 27 areas of Makkah City and its environs. Two layers were made using the Arc-Map program: the first layer was called internal wells (Central Makkah, urban) and the second layer was called external wells (rural). The total number of wells covered by this study was 145, and the samples were collected in different seasons. The samples were analyzed following standard procedures and compared with local and international standards. The results showed that the relative abundance of the major ions in the ground water was SO4 > Cl-1 > NO3 > NO2, with the presence of SO4 being dominant.

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Khdary, N. , Gasim, A. , Muriani, M. and Alshehrie, A. (2015) Modeling Distribution of Selective Ions in Urban and Rural Areas Using Geographical Information System. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 516-529. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.76041.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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