Whey Protein-Carboxymethylcellulose Obtained by Complex Coacervation as an Ingredient in Probiotic Fermented Milk


Discharge of whey proteins is still a current practice by small cheese producers. The development of low-cost alternatives for recovery of these proteins is fundamental for small producers who cannot apply expensive techniques. The present study investigated the complex coacervation technique as a cheap technology to recover proteins from sweet whey using carboxymethylcellulose, and the coacervate used as an ingredient in the formulation of probiotic fermented milk. The nutritional properties of whey-carboxymethylcellulose coacervates (WP-CMC) were evaluated in trials with animals (rats) using casein as a reference. All these parameters—the coefficient of feed efficiency (CEA), protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), and net protein ratio (NPR), as well as weight gain—were determined to evaluate protein quality. A sensory acceptance test was applied to evaluate the sensory characteristics of the product. The complex coacervation technique recovered 86% of the protein from sweet whey. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed in the biological tests for both groups (WP-CMC and Casein groups) when NPR (4.98 to 5.04), digestibility (92.35 to 90.64), and CEA (0.40 to 0.42) were evaluated. Probiotic fermented milk beverage containing WP-CMC (0.78%) and guar gum (0.68%) presented good acceptability as determined by sensory evaluation. WP-CMC can be considered an ingredient with high nutritional and biological value that could be applied in probiotic fermented milk as an alternative to small producers to allocate the residual whey from cheese manufacture.

Share and Cite:

Caetano-Silva, M. , Capitani, C. , Antunes, A. , Vougt, E. , da Silva, V. and Pacheco, M. (2015) Whey Protein-Carboxymethylcellulose Obtained by Complex Coacervation as an Ingredient in Probiotic Fermented Milk. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 571-580. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.66060.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Araújo, M.S. (2013) Produção de etanol neutro a partir do soro de queijo coalho por destilação convencional. 70f, dissertação (mestrado), Centro De Ciências E Tecnologia Agroalimentar, Universidade Federal De Campina Grande, Pombal, Brasil.
[2] Oliveira, M.N. (2009) Tecnologia de Produtos Lácteos Funcionais/editora Maricê Nogueira de Oliveira. Atheneu Editora, São Paulo.
[3] Adjonu, R., Doran, G., Torley, P. and Agboola, S. (2013) Screening of Whey Protein Isolate Hydrolysates for Their Dual Functionality: Influence of Heat Pre-Treatment and Enzyme Specificity. Food Chemistry, 136, 1435-1443.
[4] Guedes, A.F.L.M., Machado, E.C.L., Fonseca, M.C., Andrade, S.A.C. and Stamford, T.L.M. (2013) The Use of Whey in the Formulation of Beverages with Fruits and Vegetables. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 65, 1231-1238.
[5] Andrade, R.L.P. and Martins, J.F.P. (2002) Influência da adição da fécula de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L.) sobre a viscosidade do permeado de soro de queijo. Ciência e Tecnologia dos Alimentos, 22, 249-253.
[6] Capitani, C.D., Pacheco, M.T.B., Gumerato, H.F., Vitali, A. and Schmidt, F.L. (2005) Milk Whey Protein Recuperation by Coacervation with Polysaccharide. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 40, 1123-1128.
[7] Rocha-Selmi, G.A., Favaro-Trindade, C.S. and Grosso, C.R.F. (2013) Morphology, Stability, and Application of Lycopene Microcapsules Produced by Complex Coacervation. Journal of Chemistry, 2013, 7.
[8] Weinbreck, F., Nieuwenhuijse, H., Robijn, G.W. and de Kruif, C.G. (2004) Complexation of Whey Proteins with Carrageenan. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 3550-3555.
[9] Ye, A. (2008) Complexation between Milk Proteins and Polysaccharides via Electrostatic Interaction: Principles and Applications—A Review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 43, 406-415.
[10] Krzeminski, A., Prell, K.A., Busch-Stockfischb, M., Weiss, J. and Hinrichs, J. (2014) Whey Protein-Pectin Complexes as New Texturizing Elements in Fat-Reduceded Yogurt Systems. International Dairy Journal, 36, 118-127.
[11] Capitani, C., Pérez, O.E., Pacheco, B., Teresa, M. and Pilosof, A.M.R. (2007) Influence of Complexing Carboxymethylcellulose on the Thermostability and Gelation of α-Lactalbumin and β-Lactoglobulin. Food Hydrocolloids, 21, 1344-1354.
[12] Antunes, A.E.C., Cazetto, T.F. and Bolini, H.M.A. (2005) Viability of Probiotic Micro-Organisms during Storage, Postacidification and Sensory Analysis of Fat-Free Yogurts with Added Whey Protein Concentrate. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 58, 169-173.
[13] Quirós, A., Ramos, M., Muguerza, B., Delgado, M.A., Miguel, M., Aleixandre, A. and Recio, I. (2007) Identification of Novel Antihypertensive Peptides in Milk Fermented with Enterococcus faecalis. International Dairy Journal, 17, 33-41.
[14] FAO/WHO (2001) Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Acid Bacteria. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Córdoba, Argentina.
[15] Horwitz, W., Ed. (2010) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. In AOAC 18th Ed. 2005. Current through Revision 3, Gaithersburg.
[16] Burgner, E. and Feinberg, M. (1992) Determination of Mono- and Disaccharides in Foods by Interlaboratory Study: Quantitation of Bias Components for Liquid Chromatography. Journal of AOAC International, 75, 443-464.
[17] Hagen, S.R., Frost, B. and Augustin, J. (1989) Precolumn Phenylisothiocyanate Derivatization and Liquid Chromatography of Amino Acids in Food. Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 72, 912-916.
[18] Pellett, P.L. and Young, V.R. (1980) Nutritional Evaluation of Protein Foods. The United Nations University, Tokyo.
[19] Reeves, P.G., Rossow, K.L. and Lindlauf, J. (1993) Development and Testing of the AIN-93 Purified Diets for Rodents: Results on Growth, Kidney Calcification and Bone Mineralization in Rats and Mice. Journal of Nutrition, 123, 1923-1931.
[20] AOAC (1995) Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington.
[21] FAO/WHO/UNU (1991) Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Protein Quality Evaluation (FAO Food and Nutrition (Paper No. 51), FAO, Rome.
[22] Henley, E.C. and Kuster, J.M. (1994) Protein Quality Evaluation by Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scoring. Food Technology, 48, 74-77.
[23] Caetano-Silva, M.E., Pacheco, M.T.B. and Antunes, A.E.C. (2010) Estudo da viabilidade tecnológica da aplicação de coacervado de proteínas de soro de leite com carboximetil celulose em iogurte probiótico. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 13, 30-37.
[24] APHA (2004) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. 17th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington.
[25] ISO 4831 (2006) Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs—Horizontal Method for the Detection and Enumeration of Coliforms—Most Probable Number Technique. 3rd Edition, The International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
[26] ISO 7251 (2005) Microbiology of Food and Animal Stuffs—Horizontal Method for the Detection and Enumeration of Presumptive Escherichia coli—Most Probable Number Technique. 3rd Edition, The International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
[27] ISO/IDF. ISO6611/IDF94 (2004) Milk and Milk Products—Enumeration of Colony-Forming Units of Yeast and/or Molds—Colony-Count Technique at 25℃. Switzerland.
[28] FAO/WHO/UNU (2007) Expert Consultation on Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition. WHO Technical Reports Series No 935, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[29] Food and Drug Administration/FDA (1996) Review of Infant Formula Requirements; Announcement of Study; Request for Scientific Data and Information; Announcement of Open Meeting. Federal Register, 61, 8628-8629.
[30] Tolstoguzov, V.B. (1998) Functional Properties of Protein-Polysaccharide Mixtures. In: Hill, S.E., Ledward, D.A. and Mitchell, J.R., Eds., Functional Properties of Food Macromolecules, Elservier, London, 252-277.
[31] Fermented Milks (CODEX STAN 243-2003) Codex Standard for Fermented Milks. In General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985) and the General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms (CODEX STAN 206-1999).
[32] Brazilian Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. Food with Health Claims, New Foods/Ingredients, Bioactive Compounds and Probiotics.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.