Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana Native Isolates in the Biological Control of the Med-iterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata)


The effectiveness of native entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates in the biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Local isolates (P. Bv32, P. Bv39, P. Bv41, P. Bv51, and P. Bv52) of the fungus B. bassiana induced higher adult mortalities (77%, 65%, 65%, 65%, and 58%, respectively) than a control against the Mediterranean fruit fly under laboratory conditions. Adult mortality increased by increasing the conidial concentrations. In addition, the lethal time (LT50) for killing adult C. capitata ranged from 3.91 to 5.60 days, and the logged lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 3.80 to 10.50, depending on the isolate. Furthermore, the contact application method induced significantly higher mortality than feeding alone, compared with the control. In addition, spraying peaches with a conidial suspension of the isolates P. Bv32 and P. Bv39 significantly reduced infestation by the fruit fly, compared with the control. The isolates grew well at a temperature range of 25°C - 30°C; germination of the conidia occurred at 15°C - 30°C, and sporulation occurred at 20°C - 25°C. High Mediterranean fruit fly mortalities were induced at 15°C - 30°C, with significant differences among the isolates. However, the isolates failed to grow, germinate, or sporulate above 35°C or below 10°C. Under field conditions, a formula of the bioinsecticide containing the isolate P. Bv32 of B. bassiana significantly reduced peach infestation with Medfly maggots by 25% compared with the control, and by 30% when combined with a low dose of the commercial insecticide Confidor®.

Share and Cite:

Qazzaz, F. , Al-Masri, M. and Barakat, R. (2015) Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana Native Isolates in the Biological Control of the Med-iterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata). Advances in Entomology, 3, 44-55. doi: 10.4236/ae.2015.32006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Freidberg, A. and Kugler, A. (1989) Fauna Palestina, Insecta IV-Diptera: Tephritidae. Israel Academy of Sciences, Jerusalem, 210.
[2] Cayol, J.P., Causse, R., Louis, C. and Barthes, J. (1994) Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Dipt., Trypetidae) as a Rot Vector in Laboratory Conditions. Journal of Applied Entomology, 117, 338-343.
[3] Mustafa, T.M. and Abdul-Jabbar, S. (1996) Studies on Some Hosts of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Central Highlands of Jordan. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 14, 91-95.
[4] Kheder, S.B., Trabelsi, I. and Aouadi, N. (2012) From Chemicals to IPM against Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata, (Diptera: Tephritidae). In: Larramendy, M.L. and Soloneski, S., Eds., Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control-Current and Future Tactics, In Tech Europe, Rijeka, 668.
[5] Robinson, A.S. (2002) Genetic Sexing Strains in Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Sterile Insect Technique Programmes. Genetica, 116, 5-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020951407069
[6] Beris, E.I., Papachristos, D.P., Fytrou, A., Antonnatos, S.A. and Kontodimas, D.C. (2013) Pathogenicity of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Pupae and Adults of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Pest Science, 86, 275-284.
[7] Ownley, B., Gwinn, K. and Vega, F. (2010) Endophytic Fungal Entomopathogens with Activity against Plant Pathogens: Ecology and Evolution. BioControl, 55, 113-128.
[8] Rehner, S.A. and Buckley, E. (2005) A Beauveria Phylogeny Inferred from Nuclear ITS and EF1-α Sequences: Evidence for Cryptic Diversification and Links to Cordyceps Teleomorphs. Mycologia, 97, 84-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.97.1.84
[9] Roberts, D.W. and St. Leger, R.J. (2004) Metarhizium spp., Cosmopolitan Insect-Pathogenic Fungi: Mycological Aspects. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 54, 1-70.
[10] Dhuyo, A.R. and Selman, B.J. (2007) Efficacy of Biocontrol Agents Combined with Insecticide against the Larger Grain Borer Prostephanus truncates (Horn.) (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera). Pakistan Journal of Entomology, 29, 57-62.
[11] Neves, P.M.O.J. and Hirose, E. (2005) Seleção de isolados de Beauveria bassiana para o controlebiológico da broca- do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Neotropical Entomology, 34, 77-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2005000100011
[12] Gill, H.K. and Garg, H. (2014) Pesticide: Environmental Impacts and Management Strategies. In: Solenski, S. and Larramenday, M.L., Eds., Pesticides—Toxic Effects, Intech, Rijeka, 187-230.
[13] Vega, F.E. (2008) Insect Pathology and Fungal Endophytes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 98, 277-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2008.01.008
[14] Gomez-Vidal, S., Lopez-Liorca, L.V., Jansson, H.B. and Salinas, J. (2006) Endophytic Colonization of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Leaves by Entomopathogenic Fungi. Micron, 37, 624-632.
[15] Posada, F. and Vega, F.E. (2005) Establishment of the Fungal Entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an Endophyte in Cocoa Seedlings (Theobroma cacao). Mycologia, 97, 1195-1200. http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.97.6.1195
[16] Quesada-Moraga, E., Landa, B.B., Munoz-Ledesma, J., Jiminez-Diaz, R.M. and Santiago-Alvarez, C. (2006) Endophytic Colonisation of Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, by an Entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana Strain. Mycopathologia, 161, 323-329.
[17] Zimmermann, G. (2007) Review on Safety of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria brongniartii. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 17, 553-596.
[18] Feng, Z., Carruthers, R.I., Roberts, D.W. and Robson, D.S. (1985) Age-Specific Dose-Mortality Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 46, 259-264.
[19] Thomas, K.C., Khachatourians, G.G. and Ingledew, W.M. (1987) Production and Properties of Beauveria bassiana Conidia Cultivated in Submerged Culture. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 33, 12-20.
[20] Shimazu, M. and Sato, H. (1996) Media for Selective Isolation of an Entomogenous Fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 31, 291-298.
[21] Shin, T.Y., Choi, J.B., Bae, S.M., Koo, H.N. and Woo, S.D. (2010) Characterization of Beauveria bassiana MsW1 Isolated from Pine Sawyers, Monochamus saltuarius. Department of Agricultural Biology, College of Agriculture Life & Environment Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, 361-367.
[22] Konstantopoulou, M.A. and Mazomenos, B.E. (2005) Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii Strains and Four Wild-Type Fungal Species against Adults of Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata. BioControl, 50, 293- 305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10526-004-0458-4
[23] Munoz, R.J. (2000) Patogenicidad de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Bullí. sobre la mosca del mediterráneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) en condiciones de laboratorio. Tesis de Licenciatura, Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas Univ. Aut de Chiapas, Huehuetan, 55 p.
[24] Quesada-Moraga, E., Maranhao, E.A.A., Valverde-Garcla, P. and Santiago-Alvarez, C. (2006) Selection of Beauveria bassiana Isolates for Control of the Whiteflies Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum on the Basis of Their Virulence, Thermal Requirements, and Toxicogenic Activity. Biological Control, 36, 274-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.09.022
[25] Mwamburi, L.A., Laing, M.D. and Miller, R.M. (2010) Laboratory Screening of Insecticidal Activities of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus against Larval and Adult House Fly (Musca domestica L.). African Entomology, 18, 38-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.018.0106
[26] Bidochka, M.J. and Khachatourians, G. (1990) Identification of Beauveria bassiana Extracellular Protease as a Virulence Factor in Pathogenicity toward the Migratory Grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 56, 362-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2011(90)90123-N
[27] Benuzzi, M. and Santopolo, F. (2001) Naturalis: Bioinsetticida a Base di Beauveria bassiana. Informatore Fitopatologico, 51, 61-64.
[28] Chandler, D., Heale, J.K. and Gillespie, A.T. (1993) Competitive Interaction between Strains of Verticillium lecanii on Two Insect Hosts. Annals of Applied Biology, 122, 435-440.
[29] Wright, J.E. and Chandler, L.D. (1992) Development of a Biorational Mycoinsecticide: Beauveria bassiana Conidial Formulation and Its Application against Boll Weevil Populations (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85, 1130-1135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/85.4.1130
[30] Rowan, D.D., Dymock, J.J. and Brimble, M.A. (1990) Effect of Fungal Metabolite Peramine and Analogs on Feeding and Development of Argentine Stem Weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16, 1683-1695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014100
[31] Hallsworth, J.E. and Magan, N. (2009) Water and Temperature Relations of Growth of the Entomogenous Fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces farinosus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 74, 261- 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jipa.1999.4883
[32] Dimbi, S., Maniania, N.K., Lux, S.A. and Mueke, J.M. (2004) Effect of Constant Temperatures on Germination, Radial Growth and Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae to Three Species of African Tephritid Fruit Flies. BioControl, 49, 83- 94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:BICO.0000009397.84153.79
[33] Parker, B.L., Skinner, M., Gouli, V. and Brownbridge, M. (2010) Impact of Soil Applications of Beauveria bassiana and Mariannaea sp. on Nontarget Forest Arthropods. Biological Control, 8, 203-206.
[34] Tefera, T. and Pringle, K. (2003) Germination, Radial Growth, and Sporulation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates and Their Virulence to Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Different Temperatures. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13, 699-704.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.