A Psychogenesis of Color-Based Racism: The Implications of Colonialism for People of Color
Ronald Hal
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23034   PDF    HTML     6,437 Downloads   11,101 Views   Citations


Influenced by European colonization people of color have internalized a disdain for dark skin i.e.: color-based racism. In addition to the historical literature and litigation color-based racism is here substantiated empirically. The contingency coefficient reflected a moderate correlation between the variables, therefore the null hypothesis was rejected and the research hypothesis was accepted. To educate Psychologists about the significance of color-based racism among people of color will require an acknowledgement of its existence. In the aftermath, people of color and the practitioners who serve them will move Psychology to the next level of service technol-ogy.

Share and Cite:

Hal, R. (2011). A Psychogenesis of Color-Based Racism: The Implications of Colonialism for People of Color. Psychology, 2, 220-225. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.23034.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Agier, M. (1995). Discrimination, Culture and Black Identity in Brazil. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 14(3), pp. 245-264.
[2] Bonilla-Silva, E. (1991). The essential social fact of race. American Sociological Review, 64(6), 899-906.
[3] Clark, K. & Clark, M. (1980). Skin color as a factor in racial identification of Negro pre-school children. Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 159-169.
[4] Daly, A., Jennings, J., Beckett, J. & Leashore, B. (1995). Effective coping strategies of African Americans. Psychology, 40(2), pp. 40-48.
[5] Felix v. Marquez, 78-2314, (U.S. Dist. Dist. of Columbia, 1981).
[6] Germaine, C. (1991). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological Perspective. Columbia University Press. New York, N.Y.
[7] Halliburton, R. (1977). Red Over Black: Black slavery among the Cherokee Indians. Westport: Greenwood Press.
[8] Hall, R. (2006). The Bleaching Syndrome: Manifestations of a Post-Colonial Pathology Among African Women. The Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 11(1), 1-13.
[9] Hall, R. (2004). The Scientific Fallacy and Political Misuse of the Concept of Race. Lewiston, N.Y.: Mellen Press.
[10] Hall, R. (2003). Discrimination Among Oppressed Populations. Lewiston, N.Y.: Mellen Press.
[11] Hall, R. (2000). A descriptive analysis of skin color bias in Puerto Rico: Ecological applications to practice. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 27(4), 171-183.
[12] Hall, R. E. (1995). The Bleaching Syndrome: African Americans' Response to Cultural Domination vis-a-vis Skin Color. Journal of Black Studies, 26 (2), pp. 172-183.
[13] Hall, R. E. (July, 1994). The bleaching syndrome: Light skinned, psychic conflict and the domination model of western assimilation. The Indian Journal of Psychology, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Deonar Bombay, India.
[14] Hall, R. E. (1993). Clowns, buffoons, and gladiators: Media portrayals of African-American men. The Journal of Men's Studies,1, 239-251.
[15] Hall, R. E. (1990). The projected manifestations of aspiration, personal values, and environmental assessment cognates of cutaneo-chroma (skin color) for a selected population of African Americans (Doctoral dissertation, Atlanta University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 3363A.
[16] Herskovits, M. (1968). The American Negro. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
[17] Hopkins, T. (1980). A conceptual framework for understanding the ‘isms’--racism, ageism, sexism. Journal of Education for Psychology, 16(2), pp. 63-70.
[18] Hyde, C. (1995). The Meanings of Whiteness. Qualitative Sociology, 18(1), pp. 87-95.
[19] IRINNEWS.ORG. (2004). Pakistan focus on skin bleaching. UN Office of Humanitarian Affairs. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=18174#.
[20] Kitano, H. (1997). Race Relations. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
[21] Kitano, H. (1985). Race relations, 3rd Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[22] Leistikow, N. (2003). Indian Women criticize “Fair and Lovely” Ideal. India: Women’s News.
[23] Minor, N. & McGauley, L. (1988). A different approach: dialogue in education. Journal of Teaching in Psychology, 2(1), pp. 127-140.
[24] Obaahema Network. (November, 2002). Effects of Skin Bleaching. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://www.obaahema.com/Channels/health_fitness/article.cfm?ArticleID=7.
[25] Opala, K. (2001). Cosmetics Ban: Did standards body err? Retrieved April 12, 2003, from http://allafrica.com/stories/printable/200105290458.html.
[26] Pinderhuges, E. (1982). Black geneology: self liberator and therapeutic tool. Smith College Studies in Psychology, 52(2), pp. 93-106.
[27] Powell, A. (1997). Through my grandfathers eyes: Ties that bind. National Conference of African American Studies and Hispanic and Latino Studies, Houston, TX.
[28] Russell, K., Wilson, M., & Hall, R. E. (1992). The Color Complex: Last taboo among African Americans. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
[29] Solomon, A. (1992). Clinical diagnosis among diverse populations: a multicultural perspective. Families in Society:-The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 73(6), 371-377.
[30] Urrutia, A. (1994). The development of black feminism. Human Mosaic, 28(1), 26-35.
[31] Wade, J. (1996). African-American men’s gender role conflict: The significance of racial identity. Sex Roles, 34(1-2), pp. 17-33.
[32] Welsing, F. (1970). The Cress Theory of Color Confrontation and Racism. Washington, D.C.: C-R Publishers.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.