Understanding the Effects of Various Factors on the Public Response to Congestion Charge: A Latent Class Modeling Approach


The standard ordered response model (SORM) is a common disaggregate approach with ordered outcomes in which the effects of various exogenous attributes are assumed constant across ordinal choices. In this study, an innovative latent class based generalized ordered response model (LC-GORM) is formulated and used to assess the effects of various factors on respondents’ choice behavior with respect to congestion charge proposal for Jakarta, Indonesia. The proposed model probabilistically assigns respondents into selfish and altruistic class memberships (latently) based on their knowledge of the proposed scheme and their specific attributes. Aiming to capture observable preference heterogeneity across ordinal choices and allow the thresholds to be varied across observations, we parameterize the thresholds as a linear function of the exogenous variables for each ordinal preference. Using stated preference data collected in Jakarta in December 2013, we incorporate the influence of a comprehensive set of explanatory variables into four categories: charges, latent variables related to respondent’s psychological motivations, mobility attributes and socio-demographic characteristics. Empirical results obviously verify the existence of preference heterogeneity across outcomes. The findings confirm that the altruistic class are more sensitive with respect to acceptance of the scheme, while the selfish class are more sensitive with respect to rejection. The key factors influencing public acceptability include the charge level and respondent variables such as car dependency, awareness of the problem of cars in society, frequency of visits to the city center and frequency of private mode usage.

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Sugiarto, S. , Miwa, T. , Sato, H. and Morikawa, T. (2015) Understanding the Effects of Various Factors on the Public Response to Congestion Charge: A Latent Class Modeling Approach. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 5, 76-87. doi: 10.4236/jtts.2015.52008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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