Health Inequalities: Access to Services by Immigrants in Italy
Mara Tognetti*
University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.34002   PDF   HTML   XML   4,392 Downloads   5,857 Views   Citations


The presence of migrants as a phenomenon of globalization forces the various world health systems to face up to the problem of inequality penalising this population. Although new to immigration, Italy has seen an increase in immigrant health inequalities. Access to health services is a critical issue here.

Share and Cite:

Tognetti, M. (2015) Health Inequalities: Access to Services by Immigrants in Italy. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 8-15. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.34002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, G. (1999) Social Determinants of Health. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[2] Gulliford, M. and Morgan, M. (2003) Access to Health Care. Routledge, London.
[3] Van Doorslaer, E. and Masseria, C. (2004) Income-Related Inequality in the Use of Medical Care in 21 OECD countries. OECD, Paris.
[4] Kunst, A.E. and Mackenbach, J.P. (1992) An International Comparison of Socio-Economic Inequalities in Mortality. MGZ 92.11, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam.
[5] Bago d'Uva, T.B. and Jones, A.M. (2009) Health Care Utilisation in Europe: New Evidence from the ECHP. Journal of Health Economics, 28, 265-279.
[6] Bartley, M. (2004) Health Inequality: An Introduction to Theory, Concepts and Methods. Polity Press, Cambridge.
[7] Leclerc, A., Kamiski, M. and Lang, T. (2008) Inégaux face à la santé. La Découverte-Inserm, Paris.
[8] Terraneo, M., Simone, S. and Tognetti Bordogna, M. (2014) Social Inequalities and Pharmaceutical Cost Sharing in Italian Regions. International Journal of Health Services, 44, 761-785.
[9] Blane, D. (1985) An Assessment of the Black Report’s Explanations of Health Inequalities. Sociology of Health and Illness, 7, 423-445.
[10] Acheson, D. (1998) Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health Report. The Stationery Office, London.
[11] Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G. (2001) Psychosocial and Material Pathway in the Relation between Income and Health: A Response to Lynch et al. British Medical Journal, 322, 1233-1236.
[12] Daniels, N. (1985) Just Health Care. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[13] Anand, S. (2004) The Concern for Equity in Health. In: Anand, S., Fabienne, P. and Sen, A.K., Eds., Public Health, Ethics, and Equity, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 258-264.
[14] Sen, A. (2005) Human Rights and Capabilities. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 6, 151-166.
[15] Breilh, J. (1979) Epidemiología: Economia, Medicina e Política (Epidemiology: Economics, Medicine and Politics). Fontamara, Mexico City.
[16] Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A. and Cummins, S. (2002) Place Effects on Health: How Can We Conceptualise, Operationalise and Measure Them? Social Science and Medicine, 55, 125-139.
[17] Fassin, D. (2006) La biopolitica dell’alterità (The Biopolitics of Otherness). In: Quaranta, I., Ed., Antropologia Medica, Raffaello Cortina, Milan, 303-323.
[18] Marmot, M., Syme, S.L., Kagan, A., Kato, H., Cohen, J.B. and Belsky, J. (1975) Epidemiologic Studies of Coronary Disease and Stoke in Japanese Men Living in Japan, Hawaii and California: Prevalence of Coronary and Hypertensive Heart Disease and Associated Risk Factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 102, 514-525.
[19] Kolonel, L.N., Hinds, M.W. and Hankin, J.H. (1980) Cancer Patterns among Migrants and Native-Born Japanese in Hawaii in Relation to Smoking, Drinking and Dietary Habits. In: Gelboin, H.V., Mac Mahon, B., Matsushima, T., Sugimura, T., Takayama, S. and Takebe, H., Eds., Genetic and Environmental Factors in Experimental and Human Cancer, Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, 327-340.
[20] DHSS (Black Report) (1980) Inequalities in Health: Report of a Research Working Group. Department of Health and Social Security, London.
[21] Lalonde, M. (1974) A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians. A Working Document, Minister of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa.
[22] Dressler, W.W. (1993) Health in the African American Community: Accounting for Health Inequalities. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 7, 325-345.
[23] Heymsfield, S., et al. (1977) Race, Education and Prevalence of Hypertension. American Journal of Epidemiology, 106, 351-361.
[24] Ford, E.S. and Cooper, R.S. (1991) Risk Factors for Hypertension in a National Cohort Study. Hypertension, 18, 598- 606.
[25] Jaynes, G.D., Williams, R.M., Eds. (1989) A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
[26] Wilkinson, R.G. (1996) Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. Routledge, London.
[27] Marmot, M. (2004) Status Syndrome. Bloomsbury, London.
[28] Cohen, S., Gottlieb, B.H. and Underwood, L.G. (2000) Social Relationship and Health. In: Cohen, S., et al., Eds., Social Support Measurement and Intervention: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists, Oxford University Press, New York, 147-156.
[29] Diez Roux, A.V., Merkin, S.S., Arnett, D., Chambless, L., Massing, M., Nieto, F.J., et al. (2001) Neighbourhood of Residence and Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 99-106.
[30] Nazroo, J. (1997) The Health of Britain’s Ethnic Minorities. Policy Studies Institute, London.
[31] Nazroo, J. and Williams, D.R. (2006) The Social Determination of Ethnic/Racial Inequalities in Health. In: Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G., Eds., Social Determinant of Health, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 76-83.
[32] Gallino, L., Ed. (1993) Disuguaglianza ed equità in Europa (Inequality and Equity in Europe). Laterza, Bari.
[33] Tognetti Bordogna, M., Ed. (2008) Immigrazione e disuguaglianza di salute (Immigration and Health Imequality). Franco Angeli, Milan.
[34] Nuti, S., Maciocco, G. and Barsani, S., Eds. (2012) Immigrazione e salute. Percorsi d’integrazione sociale (Immigration and Health. Social Integration Pathways). Il Mulino, Bologna.
[35] ISTAT (2008) Sanità. Statistiche in breve, Salute e ricorso ai servizi sanitari della popolazione straniera residente in Italia (Health and Recourse to Health Services by the Foreign Population Resident in Italy). 11 December.
[36] Marceca, M., Geraci, S. and Martino, A. (2006) Esperienza migratoria, salute e disuguaglianze (Migratory Experience, Health and Inequalities). Osservatorio Italiano sulla Salute Globale—OISG. In: A caro prezzo. Secondo rapporto sulle disuguaglianze (At a High Price. Second Report on Inequalities), ETS, Pisa, 304-318.
[37] Piemonte, I., Ed. (1992) Rumore. Atteggiamenti verso gli immigrati stranieri (Noise. Attitudes to Foreign Immigrants). Rosenberg & Sellier, Turin.
[38] Bianco, M.L. (2001) L’Italia delle disuguaglianze (The Italy of Inequalities). Carocci, Rome.
[39] Padovan, D. and Alietti, A. (2008) Disuguaglianze nelle minoranze etniche: Una ricerca in due presidi ospedalieri della provincia torinese (Inequaalities in Ethnic Minorities: Research in Two Hospitals in the Province of Turin). In: Tognetti Bordogna, M., Ed., Disuguaglianze di salute e immigrazione (Health Inequalities and Immigration), Franco Angeli, Milan, 135-162.
[40] Bollini, P. and Sien, H. (1995) No Real Progress towards Equity: Health of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities on the Eve of the Year 2000. Social Science & Medicine, 41, 819-828.
[41] Razum, O. (2006) Commentary: Of Salmon and Time Travellers—Musing on the Mystery of Migration Mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34, 919-921.
[42] Razum, O., Zeeb, H. and Rohrmann, S. (2000) The Healthy Migrant Effect—Not Merely a Fallacy of Inaccurate Denominator Figures. International Journal of Epidemiology, 29, 191-192.
[43] Ullmann, S.H., Goldman, N. and Massey, D.S. (2011) Healthier before They Migrate, Less Healthy When They Return? The Health of Returned Migrants in Mexico. Social Science & Medicine, 73, 421-428.
[44] Perocco, F. (2012) Trasformazioni globali e nuove disuguaglianze. Il caso Italia (Global Transformations and New Inequalities. The Case of Italy). Franco Angeli, Milan.
[45] Tognetti Bordogna, M. (2012) Accesso ai servizi sanitari e costruzione della cittadinanza dei migranti (Access to Health Services and Building Migrant Citizenship). Autonomie locali e Servizi Sociali, 1, 111-124.
[46] Rechel, B., Mladovsky, P., et al. (2013) Migration and Health in an Increasingly Diverse Europe. The Lancet, Published on Line.
[47] AGENAS (2011) La spesa sanitaria per gli immigrati (Health Spending on Immigrants). line, March.
[48] Tognetti Bordogna, M., Ed. (2004) I colori del welfare (The Colours of Welfare). Franco Angeli, Milan.
[49] ASR, Regione Emilia Romagna (2007) Disuguaglianze in cifre (Inequalities in Figures). Dossier n. 145.
[50] Kleiman, A. (1980) Patient and Healer in the Context of Culture. California Press, Berkley.
[51] AA.VV (2011) L’accesso al Pronto Soccorso nella Provincia di Reggio Emilia: Un confronto tra la popolazione immigrata e italiana (Access to Accident & Emergency in the Province of Reggio Emilia: A Comparison between the Immigrant and the Italian Population. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 3, 250-266.
[52] AA.VV (2008) La spesa sanitaria per gli immigrati (Health Spending on Immigrants). In Monitori, n. 21.
[53] ISTISSAN (2005) Rapporto ISTISSAN. Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.