Nanomodificated Surface CoCr Alloy for Corrosion Protection of MoM Prosthesis

DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2015.62009   PDF   HTML   XML   3,612 Downloads   4,320 Views   Citations


Problems in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement systems still persist due to high wear rates, low corrosion resistance and release of toxic ions and nanoparticles. As a consequence of these effects, failure, infections, loosening or bone resorption is the typical problems in the hip prosthesis. In order to reduce failure due to corrosion and/or releasing ions and particles, this study presents some works in a novel nanoscale surface modification of cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) for obtaining improved surface conditions in these alloys for these applications. Improving corrosion resistant of these alloys and achieving a low wear rate are possible to reduce the total released ions and particles released from the surface of this material. According to it, three different treatments using oxygen at temperatures of 300°C, 350°C and 400°C were carried out by plasma immersion ion implantation technique (PI3). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows an increase in the formation of chromium oxides in the outer surface of the CoCr alloy. It allows improving in corrosion resistant in CoCr alloys. Moreover, total quantity of released Co, Cr and Mo ions have been reduced. Wear rate studies showed a very similar behaviour after the treatments in relation to untreated CoCr alloy and release rate from the treated surface of CoCr alloys was reduced in comparison with untreated CoCr alloy.

Share and Cite:

Díaz, C. , Mändl, S. , Pereiro, R. and Fernández, B. (2015) Nanomodificated Surface CoCr Alloy for Corrosion Protection of MoM Prosthesis. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 6, 91-99. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2015.62009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Holzwarth, U. and Cotogno, G. (2012) JRC Scientific and Policy Reports. Publications Office of the European Union, European Commission, Luxembourg.
[2] OECD (2011) Health at a Glance 2011. Report, OECD Publishing.
[3] Burns, A.W. and Bourne, R.B. (2006) Economics of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty. Current Orthopaedics, 20, 203- 207.
[4] Tennent, T.D. and Goddard, N.J. (2000) Current Attitudes to Total Hip Replacement in the Younger Patient: Results of a National Survey. Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England, 82, 33-38.
[5] Karas, S. (2012) Outcomes of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing: A Systematic Review. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 3, 1-7.
[6] Davis, J.R. (2003) Handbook of Materials for Medical Devices. ASM International.
[7] Yan, Y., Neville, A., Dowson, D., Williams, S. and Fisher, J. (2008) Tribo-Corrosion Analysis of Wear and Metal Ion Release Interactions from Metal-on-Metal and Ceramic-on-Metal Contacts for the Application in Artificial Hip Prostheses. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part J-Journal of Engineering Tribology, 222, 483-492.
[8] Cawley, J., Metcalf, J.E.P., Jones, A.H., Bandb, T.J. and Skupien, D.S. (2003) A Tribological Study of Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum Alloys Used in Metal-on-Metal Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty. Wear, 255, 999-1006.
[9] McMinn, D., Daniel, J., Ziaee, H. and Pradhan, C. (2011) Indications and Results of Hip Resurfacing. International Orthopaedics, 35, 231-237.
[10] Tipper, J., Ingham, E., Jin, Z. and Fisher, J. (2005) The Science of Metal-on-Metal Articulation. Current Orthopaedics, 19, 280-287.
[11] Hart, A.J., Sabah, S.A., Bandi, A.S., Maggiore, P., Tarassoli, P., Sampson, B. and Skinner, J.A. (2011) Sensitivity and Specificity of Blood Cobalt and Chromium Metal Ions for Predicting Failure of Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (British Volume), 93, 1308-1313.
[12] Barry, M. (2010) New York Times.
[13] De Smet, K., De Haan, R., Calistri, A., Campbell, P.A., Ebramzadeh, E., Pattyn, C. and Gill, H.S. (2008) Metal Ion Measurement as a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Problems with Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (American Volume), 90, 202-208.
[14] Peters, K., Schmidt, H., Unger, R.E., Kamp, G., Prols, F., Berger, B.J. and Kirkpatrick, C.J. (2005) Paradoxical Effects of Hypoxia-Mimicking Divalent Cobalt Ions in Human Endothelial Cells in Vitro. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 270, 157-166.
[15] Patntirapong, S., Habibovic, P. and Hauschka, P.V. (2009) Effects of Soluble Cobalt and Cobalt Incorporated into Calcium Phosphate Layers on Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation. Biomaterials, 30, 548-555.
[16] Wedemeyer, C., Xu, J., Neuerburg, C., Landgraeber, S., Malayar, N.M., von Knoch, F., Gosheger, G., von Knoch, M., Loer, F. and Saxler, G. (2007) Particle-Induced Osteolysis in Three-Dimensional Micro-Computed Tomography. Calcified Tissue International, 81, 394-402.
[17] Merkel, K.D., Erdmann, J.M., McHugh, K.P., Abu-Amer, Y., Ross, F.P. and Teitelbaum, S.L. (1999) Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Mediates Implant Osteolysis. American Journal of Pathology, 154, 203-210.
[18] Gallo, J., Raska, M., Mrazek, F. and Petrek, M. (2008) Bone Remodeling, Particle Disease and Individual Susceptibility to Periprosthetic Osteolysis. Physiological Research, 57, 339-349.
[19] Sabokbar, A., Pandey, R., Quinn, J.M. and Athanasou, N.A. (1998) Osteoclastic Differentiation by Mononuclear Pha- gocytes Containing Biomaterial Particles. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 117, 136-140.
[20] Wolner, C., Nauer, G.E., Trummer, J., Putz, V. and Tschegg, S. (2006) Possible Reasons for the Unexpected Bad Biocompatibility of Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 26, 34-40.
[21] Pereira, M.C., Pereira, M.L. and Sousa, J.P. (1999) Histological Effects of Iron Accumulation on Mice Liver and Spleen after Administration of a Metallic Solution. Biomaterials, 20, 2193-2198.
[22] Oberdorster, G., Oberdorster, E. and Oberdorster, J. (2005) Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 823-839.
[23] Kim, K.J., Kobayashi, Y. and Itoh, T. (1998) Osteolysis Model with Continuous Infusion of Polyethylene Particles. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 352, 46-52.
[24] Mediero, A., Frenkel, S.R., Wilder, T., He, W., Mazumder, A. and Cronstein, B.N. (2012) Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation Prevents Wear Particle-Induced Osteolysis. Science Translational Medicine, 4, 168-177.
[25] Liu, X., Chu, P.K. and Ding, C. (2004) Surface Modification of Biomaterials Using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition. Materials Science and Engineering: R, 47, 49-121.
[26] Tian, X., Gong, C., Yang, S., Luo, Z., Fu, R.K.Y. and Chu, P.K. (2006) Oxygen Plasma Ion Implantation of Biomedical Titanium Alloy. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 34, 1235-1240.
[27] Mandl, S. (2009) Increased Biocompatibility and Bioactivity after Energetic PVD Surface Treatments. Materials, 2, 1341-1387.
[28] Manova, D., Mandl, S. and Rauschenbach, B. (2001) Heat Balance during Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation. Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 10, 423-429.
[29] Ponti, J., Sabbioni, E., Munaro, B., Broggi, F., Marmorato, P., Franchini, F., Colognato, R. and Rossi, F. (2009) Geno- toxicity and Morphological Transformation Induced by Cobalt Nanoparticles and Cobalt Chloride: An in Vitro Study in Balt/3T3 Mouse Fibroblasts. Mutagenesis, 24, 439-445.
[30] Catelas, I., Bobyn, J.D., Medley, J.B., Krygier, J.J., Zukor, D.J. and Huk, O.L. (2003) Size, Shape, and Composition of Wear Particles from Metal-Metal Hip Simulator Testing: Effects of Alloy and Number of Loading Cycles. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 67A, 312-327.
[31] Korovessis, P., Petsinis, G., Repanti, M. and Repantis, T. (2006) Metallosis after Contemporary Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (American Volume), 88, 1183-1191.
[32] Díaz, C., Lutz, J., Mandl, S., García, J.A., Martínez, R., Rodríguez, R.J., Damborenea, J.J., Arenas, M.A. and Conde, A. (2008) Comparison of Tribological Behaviour and Biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V Alloy after Ion Implantation or Thermal Oxidation. Physica Status Solidi (C), 5, 947-951.
[33] Díaz, C., García, J.A., Mandl, S. and Rodríguez, R.J. (2011) Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation for the Prevention of Metal Ion Release from CoCrMo Alloys. IEEE Issue—Applications and Numerical Simulation of Plasma Surface Modification, 39, 3045-3048.
[34] Kostov, K.G., Ueda, M., Lepienskyc, M., Soares, P.C., Gomes, G.F., Silva, M.M. and Reuther, H. (2004) Surface Modification of Metal Alloys by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Subsequent Plasma Nitriding. Surface & Coatings Technology, 186, 204-208.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.