Share This Article:

Homocysteine and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:328KB) PP. 381-389
DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.73043    4,212 Downloads   4,717 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Among the extrinsic factors, homocysteine (Hy) stands out, which is an intermediate amino acid of the intracellular metabolism of methionine involved in the process of cellular oxidation, which promotes the installation of atheromatous plaques and, therefore, is considered as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: To evaluate the plasma homocysteine levels (Hy) in overweight or obese children and adolescents and their relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2011 to May 2012 with overweight or obesity children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years followed at the Center for Childhood Obesity (IOC), Campina Grande-PB. A structured form was used to record demographic, socioeconomic and clinics variables and the patients underwent laboratory tests to define their lipid and glucose profiles and measurement of plasma Hy levels. Results: The study evaluated a total of 165 children and adolescents with mean age of 12.5 (±2.5) years; the majority were female (57.0%). Regarding the lipid profile, there was more individuals with low HDL cholesterol (88.5%). Plasma Hy levels were high in 24.2% of the sample. The mean Hy levels ranged from 4.3 to 18.9 μmol/L, being higher in males, obese adolescents and also in patients with high insulin levels and resistance. Conclusions: The results shown in this study emphasize the importance of detecting and controlling the plasma Hy levels as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and the need for further studies to evaluate the clinical and biological factors related to alterations in its metabolism.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

de Farias Leal, A. , da Silva Simões, M. , Teixeira, A. , Medeiros, C. , Palmeira, Á. , de Castro, G. , de Assis, M. and de Oliveira, M. (2015) Homocysteine and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents. Health, 7, 381-389. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.73043.

References

[1] Lavrador, M.S.F., et al. (2011) Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes com Diferentes Graus de Obesidade. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 96, 205-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2010005000166
[2] Girotto, E., Andrade, S.M., Cabrera, A.S. and Ridao, E.G. (2009) Prevalência de fatores de risco para doencas cardiovasculares em hipertensos cadastrados em unidade de saúde da família. Maringá, 31, 77-82.
[3] Moura, M.S.B., Martins, M.C.C. and Souza Filho, M.D. (2011) Hiperhomocisteinemia como fator de risco cardiovascular. Com Scientiae Saúde, 10, 181-185.
[4] Kutilek, S., Nemec, V. and Bockayova, E. (2012) Níveis séricos elevados de homocisteína em pacientes pediátricos com fenomeno de Raynaud primário. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia, 52, 128-130.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0482-50042012000100014
[5] Amorim, K.S., Lopes, A.S. and Pereira, I.A. (2011) Impacto do exercício físico nos níveis de homocisteína, um fator de risco para aterosclerose: revisao sistemática. Revista Brasileira de Atividade Física & Saúde, 16, 70-75.
[6] Villarreal, E., Forero, Y., Poveda, E., Baracaldo, C. and López, E. (2008) Marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular em escolares de cinco departamentos de la región oriental em Colombia. Biomédica, 28, 38-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v28i1.107
[7] Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2000) Table for Calculated Body Mass Index Values for Selected Highs and Weights for Ages 2 to 20 Years. Developed by the National Center for Health Statistc in Collaboration with the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts
[8] World Health Organization (1995) Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[9] International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2007) The IDF Consensus Definition of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents.
http://www.idf.org/home/index.cfm?node=1429
[10] Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC) (2010) VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensao. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 95, 1-51.
[11] Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia, SBC (2005) I Diretriz de Prevencao da Aterosclerose na Infancia e na Adolescência. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 85, 1-36.
[12] American Diabetes Association (2009) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32, S13-S61.
[13] Madeira, I.R., Miranda Carvalho, C.N., Gazolla, F.M., de Matos, H.J., Borges, M.A. and Bordallo, M.A.N. (2008) Ponto de corte do índice Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) avaliado pela curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) na deteccao de síndrome metabólica em criancas pré-púberes com excesso de peso. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 52, 1466-1473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302008000900010
[14] Refsum, H., Smith, A.D., Ueland, P.M., Nexo, E., Clarke, R., Mc Partlin, J., et al. (2004) Facts and Recommendations about Total Homocysteine Determinations: An Expert Opinion. Clinical Chemistry, 50, 3-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2003.021634
[15] Santos, M.G., Pegoraro, M., Sandrini, F. and César, E. (2008) Fatores de risco no desenvolvimento da aterosclerose na infancia e adolescência. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 90, 276-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2008000400012
[16] Bereson, G.S., Srinivasan, S.R., Bao, W., Newman, W.P., Tracy, R.E. and Wattigney, W.A. (1998) Association between Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Atherosclerosis in Children and Young Adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1650-1656.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199806043382302
[17] Leal, V.S., de Lira, P.I.C., Oliveira, J.S., de Menezes, R.C.E., de Souza Sequeira, L.A., de Arruda Neto, M.A., et al. (2012) Excesso de peso em criancas e adolescentes no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil: Prevalência e determinantes. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 28, 1175-1182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2012000600016
[18] Silva, A.P.S., Baladan, G. and Motta, M.E.F. (2005) Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em criancas e adolescentes de diferentes condicoes socioeconomicas. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil, 5, 53-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-38292005000100007
[19] Louzada, S.M.W., Silva, E.M.K. and Puccini, R.F. (2011) Sobrepeso e obesidade em escolares pré-púberes: Associacao com baixo peso ao nascer e antecedentes familiares para doenca cardiovascular. Embu regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, 2006. Ciência Saúde Coletiva, 16, 4465-4472.
[20] Rinaldi, A.E.M., Nogueira, P.C.K., Riyuzo, M.C., Olbrich-Neto, J., Gabriel, G.F.C.P., Macedo, C.S. and Burini, R.C. (2012) Prevalência de pressao arterial elevada em criancas e adolescentes do ensino fundamental. The Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 30, 79-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822012000100012
[21] Freitas, D., Rodrigues, C.S., Yagui, C.M., Carvalho, R.S.T. and Marchi-Alves, L.M. (2012) Fatores de risco para hipertensao arterial entre estudantes do ensino médio. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 25, 430-434.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-21002012000300017
[22] Mendes, M.J.F.L., Alves, J.G.B., Alves, A.V., Siqueira, P.P. and Freire, E.F.C. (2006) Associacao dos fatores de risco para doencas cardiovasculares em adolescentes e seus pais. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil, 6, 549-554.
[23] Franca, E. and Alves, J.G.B. (2006) Dislipidemia entre criancas e adolescentes de Pernambuco. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 87, 722-727.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2006001900007
[24] Araki, M.V.R., Barros, C. and Santos, E.G. (2010) Análise do perfil lipídico de criancas e adolescentes ndo estado de Sergipe. Scientia Plena, 6, 1-6.
[25] Gothelf, S.J. and Jubany, L.L. (2007) Antropometría y lípidos séricos en ninos y adolescentes obesos de la ciudad de Salta, 2006. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, 105, 411-417.
[26] Vannucchi, H. and Melo, S.S. (2009) Hiper-homocisteinemia e risco cardiometabólico. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 53, 540-549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302009000500007
[27] Cardoso, I.L. (2009) Homocisteína e a Doenca Cardiovascular. Revista da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, 6, 198- 206.
[28] Amorim, F.G., de Rezende, L.C.D., Coitinho, L.B., de Freitas, J.V., Scherr, J.A. and Dettogni, R.S. (2011) Bioquímica clínica da aterosclerose provocada por hiper-homocisteinemia. Revista Eletronica de Farmácia, 8, 36-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5216/ref.v8i1.13812
[29] Guerra, M. and Hernández-Rodríguez, P. (2011) Homocisteína, implicaciones en riesgo cardiovascular. Revista Cienciactual, 1, 41-57.
[30] Almeida, L.C., Tomita, L.Y., D’Almeida, V. and Cardoso, M.A. (2008) Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentracoes séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 24, 587-596.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2008000300012
[31] Kerr, M.A., Livingstone, B., Bates, C.J., Bradbury, I., Scott, J.M., Ward, M., et al. (2009) Folate, Related B Vitamins, and Homocysteine in Childhood and Adolescence: Potential Implications for Disease Risk in Later Life. Pediatrics, 123, 627-635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1049
[32] Akanji, A.O., Thalib, L. and Al-Isa, A.N. (2010) Folate, Vitamin B12 and Total Homocysteine Levels in Arab Adolescent Subjects: Reference Ranges and Potential Determinants. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 20, 1-7.
[33] Pinto, W.J. (2009) Homocisteína e risco cardiovascular. Revista de Ciências Médicas, 18, 259-268.
[34] Brasileiro, R.S., Escrivao, M.A.M.S., Taddei, J.A.A.C., Almeida, V.D. and Ancona-Lopez, F. (2005) Plasma Total Homocysteine Overweight and Non-Overweight Adolescents: A Case-Control Study. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 20, 313-319.
[35] Paixao, J.M. (2011) Importancia dos polimorfismos do metabolismo da Hemocisteína na susceptibilidade para a Diabetes Mellitus do tipo II (Dissertacao). Tese de mestrado, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Biologia (Biologia Humana e Ambiente).
[36] Cerquera, J.M.C., Costa, L.O.B.F., Nogueira, A.A.V., Silva, D.C.C., Torres, D.O.C. and Santos, A.C.O. (2010) Homocisteinemia em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, 32, 126-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-72032010000300005

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.