The Potential Application of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oils as Natural Preservatives of Beef Patties

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.63038   PDF   HTML   XML   2,953 Downloads   3,633 Views   Citations

Abstract

The effect of essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus on the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef patties was investigated in the present study. Essential oils were incorporated into the beef patties at 0.1% and 0.2% (w/w). The beef patties were then inoculated with cultures of E. coli and S. aureus and stored at 4°C. The control patties were processed without essential oil but inoculated with E. coli or S. aureus. The proximate composition, lipid oxidation and microbial counts were carried out after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results showed that the incorporation of essential oils in beef patties did not significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the chemical composition of the beef patties but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the TBA (Thiobarbituric acid) during storage period. The incorporation of the essential oil of S. aromaticum at 0.2% reduced the E. coli growth by 1.48 log CFU/g and that of S. aureus by 6.52 log CFU/g while the incorporation of C. citratus at 0.2% reduced the E. coli growth by 1.21 log CFU/g and that of S. aureus by 1.4 log CFU/g after 28 days of storage. The pH measurement during the storage period showed a slight drop during the first 7 days of storage and an increase during the last 21 days in all samples. The sensory test of the beef patties showed that the consumers accepted patties formulated with the two essential oils. But the one made with 0.1% essential oil of S. aromaticum was the most accepted. The analysis of the color of beef patties between 0 and 28 days of storage revealed that the incorporation of essential oils retarded the degradation of the color of patties. Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils to protect beef patties against lipid oxidation and microbial growth.

Share and Cite:

Siewe, F. , Mbougueng, P. , Tatsadjieu, L. , Noumo, T. and Mbofung, C. (2015) The Potential Application of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oils as Natural Preservatives of Beef Patties. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 374-385. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.63038.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Samojlik, I. and Jovin, E.A. (2007) Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Rosemary and Sage (Rosmarinus officinal L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) Essential Oils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 55, 7879-7885.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0715323
[2] Tang, S., Kerr, J.P., Sheehan, D., Buckley, D.J. and Morrissey, P.A. (2001) Antioxidative Effect of Added Tea Catechins on Susceptibility of Cooked Red Meat, Poultry and Fish Patties to Lipid Oxidation. Food Research International, 34, 651-657.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00190-3
[3] Mielnik, M.B., Signe, S., Bjorg, E. and Grete, S. (2008) By-Products from Herbs Essential Oil Production as Ingredient in Marinade for Turkey Thighs. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41, 93-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.01.014
[4] Conner, D.E., Kotrola, J.S., Mikel, I.W.B. and Tamblyni, K.C. (1997) Effects of Acetic-Lactic Acid Treatments Applied to Beef Trim on Populations of Escherichia coli O157-H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in Ground Beef. Journal of Food Protection, 60, 1560-1563.
[5] Vernozy-Rozand, C., Ray-Gueniot, S., Ragot, C., Bavai, C., Mazuy, C.C. and Montet, M.P. (2002) Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Industrial Minced Beef. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 35, 7-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765X.2002.01116.x
[6] Guillen, S.R. and Chozas, M. (1998) Thethiobarbiyuric Acid (TBA) Reaction in Foods: A Review. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 38, 315-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408699891274228
[7] Badi, H.N., Yazdani, D., Ali, S.M. and Nazari, F. (2004) Effect of Spacing and Harvesting Time on Herbage Yield and Quality/Quantity of Oil in Thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. Industrial Crops and Products, 19, 231-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2003.10.005
[8] Gilbert, C. (1998) Le sens caché des risques collectifs. La Recherche, 307, 110-113.
[9] Botsoglou, N.A., Grigoropoulou, S.H., Botsoglou, E., Govaris, A. and Papageorgiou, G. (2003) The Effects of Dietary Oregano Essential Oil and α-Tocopheryl Acetate on Lipid Oxidation in Raw and Cooked Turkey during Refrigerated Storage. Meat Science, 65, 1193-1200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(03)00029-9
[10] Nychas, G.J.E., Skandamis, P.N., Tassou, C.C. and Koutsoumanis, K.P. (2008) Meat Spoilage during Distribution. Meat Science, 78, 77-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.06.020
[11] Blasi, D.V., Debrot, S., Menound, P.A., Gendre, L. and Schowing, J. (1990) Amoebicidal Effect of Essential Oils in Vitro. Journal de Toxicologie Clinique et Experimentale, 10, 361-373.
[12] Nguefack, J., Budde, B.B. and Jacobsen, M. (2004) Five Essential Oils from Aromatic Plants of Cameroon: Their Antibacterial Activity and Ability to Permeabilize the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Listeria innocua Examined by Flow Cytometry. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 39, 395-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01587.x
[13] Gagman, S., Richa, S., Vivek, P., Narender, S., Bharpur, S. and Man, A.S. (2011) Scientific Basis for the Therapeutic Use of Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon Grass). Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology Research, 2, 3-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.79796
[14] Cheel, J., Theoduloz, C., Rodriaguez, J. and Hirschmann, S.G. (2005) Free Radical Scavengers and Antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 2511-2517.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0479766
[15] Adeneye, A.A. and Agbaje, E.O. (2007) Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Fresh Leaf Aqueous Extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf in Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112, 440-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.034
[16] Muhammad, S., Muhammad, N., Moazzam, R.K., Muhammad, A.S., Aamir, S. and Rai, M.A. (2013) Antimicrobial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum Extracts against Food Spoilage Bacteria. Global Journal of Medical Microbiology and Reviews, 1, 27-35.
[17] Ngassoum, M.B. (2001) Investigation of Essential Oils of Plectranthus glandulousus Hook f. (Lamiaceae) from Cameroon. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 13, 73-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2001.9699615
[18] AACC (2000) Approved Methods; 08-12; 10-10B; 32-40; 44-15A; 54-21; 55-30; 56-81B; 66-20. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul.
[19] AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. 5th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
[20] Buedge, J.A. and Aust, S.D. (1978) Microsomal, Lipid Peroxidation. In: Fleisher, S.F. and Packer, L., Eds., Methods in Enzymology, 3th edition, Academic Press, New York, 302-316.
[21] CIE (1976) Official Recommendations on Uniform Colour Spaces, Colour Differences Equations, and Metric Colour Terms. Supplement No. 2 to CIE Publication, No.15, Paris.
[22] Watts, B.M., Ylimaki, G.L. and Jefery, L.E. (1991) Méthodes de base pour l’évaluation sensorielledes aliments. CRDI, Ottawa, 123 p.
[23] Mbougueng, P.D., Tenin, D., Tchiegang, C. and Scher, J. (2006) Effects of Local Spices on Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and Consumer Acceptability of Beef Patties. Journal of Food Technology, 4, 16-21.
[24] Essia Ngang, J.J., Kouebou, C.P., Dzudie, T. and Etoa, F.-X. (2006) Effect of Fat and Essential Oil on the Microbial Quality of Beef Patties. Journal of Food Technology, 4, 80-85.
[25] Jagadeesh, B.A., Rupasundari, A., Sankar Reddy, B. and Sravanthi, M. (2012) Studies on the Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Essential Oils of Garlic, Clove and Cinnamon on Staphylococcus aureus in Chicken Meat Patties. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 8, 45-49.
[26] Abee, T., Krockel, L. and Hill, C. (1995) Mode of Action and Potentials in Preservation and Control of Food Poisoning. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 28, 169-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(95)00055-0
[27] Laekeman, G.M., Van Hoof, L., Haemers, A., Berghe, D.A.V., Herman, A.G. and Vlietinck, A. (1990) Eugenol a Valuable Compound for in Vitro Experimental Research and Worthwhile for Further in Vivo Investigation. Phytotherapy Research, 4, 90-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650040304
[28] Onawunmi, G.O., Abyisak, W. and Ogunlana, E.O. (1999) Antibacterial Constituents in Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citrtus. Phytotherapy, 8, 115-119.
[29] Leite, A.M., Lima, E.D.O., De Souza, E.L., Diniz, M.D.F.F.M., Trajano, V.N. and De Medeiros, I.A. ( 2007) Inhibitory Effect of β-Pinene, α-Pinene and Eugenol on the Growth of Potential Infectious Endocarditis Causing Gram-Positive Bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 43, 121-126.
[30] Papadima, S.N., Arvanitoyannis, I.N., Bloukas, J.G. and Fournitzis, G.C. (1999) Chemometric Model for Describing Greek Traditional Sausages. Meat Science, 51, 271-277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00137-5
[31] Devendra, K. and Tanwar, V.K. (2011) Utilization of Clove Powder as Phytopreservative for Chicken Nuggets Preparation. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 2, 11-14.
[32] Mahmoud, B.S.M., Yamazaki, K., Miyashita, K., Shin, I. and Suzuki, T. (2006) A New Technology for Fish Preservation by Combined Treatment with Electrolyzed NaCl Solutions and Essential Oil Compounds. Food Chemistry, 99, 656-662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.037
[33] Ngah, E. (2004) Oxydation des lipides du muscle Pectoralis chez la dinde au cours de la cuisson. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences, 4, 125-132.
[34] Kumar, D. and Tanwar, V.K. (2011) Utilization of Clove Powder as Phytopreservative for Chicken Nuggets Preparation. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 2, 11-14.
[35] Olorunsanya, A.O., Olorunsanya, E.O., Bolu, S.A.O., Adejumobi, C.T. and Kayode, R.M.O. (2010) Effect of Graded Levels of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on Oxidative Stability of Raw or Cooked Pork Patties. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9, 467-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2010.467.470
[36] Mc Carthy, T.L., Kerry, J.P., Kerry, J.F., Lynch, P.B. and Buckley, D.J. (2001) Assessment of the Antioxidant Potential of Natural Food and Plant Extracts in Fresh and Previously Frozen Pork Patties. Meat Science, 57, 177-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00090-5
[37] Sajid, M. and Soottawat, B. (2010) Preventive Effect of Tannic Acid in Combination with Modified Atmospheric Packaging on the Quality Losses of the Refrigerated Ground Beef. Food Control, 21, 1282-1290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.018
[38] Shan, B.Z., Cai, Y., Brooks, D.B. and Corke, H. (2009) Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects of Five Spices and Herb Extracts as Natural Preservatives of Raw Pork. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89, 1879-1885.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3667

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.