Water Quality Assessment of a Tropical Mexican Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques
Jessica Badillo-Camacho1, Eire Reynaga-Delgado2, Isela Barcelo-Quintal3, Pedro F. Zarate del Valle1, Ulrico J. López-Chuken4, Eulogio Orozco-Guareño1, Jorge Israel AlvarezBobadilla3, Sergio Gomez-Salazar5*
1Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara-Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Guadalajara, México.
2Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Universidad de Guadalajara-Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Guadalajara, México.
3Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, México D.F., México.
4Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico.
5Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Guadalajara-Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Guadalajara, México.
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.63022   PDF   HTML     3,782 Downloads   5,061 Views   Citations


Water quality of Mexican tropical lake Chapala was assessed through multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) at ten different monitoring sites for ten physicochemical variables and six metals. This study evaluated and interpreted complex water quality data sets and apportioned of pollution sources to get better information about water quality. From descriptive statistics results, the highest concentrations of metals occurred during the dry season, and this trend was explained by the fact that an unusual rainy event occurred during the month of February 2009 and brought metals into the lake by runoffs from nearby mountains. According to international criteria for water consumption by aquatic organisms [USEPA], only Zn concentration values were below these criteria whereas the values of Ni, Pb, Cd and Fe were above the corresponding values set in these criteria (Ni: 52 μg·L-1, Pb: 2.5 μg·L-1, Cd: 0.25 μg·L-1, and Fe: 1000 μg·L-1). The correlations were observed by PCA, which were used to classify the samples by CA, based on the PCA scores. Seven significant cluster groups of sampling locations—(sites 4 and 5), (sites 3 and 9), (site 7), (site 10), (sites 2 and 6), (site 8) and (site 1)— were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality. The results revealed that the stress exerted on the lake caused by waste sources follows the order: domestic > agricultural > industrial.

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Badillo-Camacho, J. , Reynaga-Delgado, E. , Barcelo-Quintal, I. , Valle, P. , López-Chuken, U. , Orozco-Guareño, E. , AlvarezBobadilla, J. and Gomez-Salazar, S. (2015) Water Quality Assessment of a Tropical Mexican Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 215-224. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.63022.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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